Chapter 6-8 human geo

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Chapter 6-8 human geo
2011-05-13 00:03:21

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  1. grouping together firms from the same industry in a single area for collective use of sharing labor resources
  2. economic activites that support large scale industries like shipping and food service
    ancillary activities
  3. human centered; ideas that focus solely on needs of people
  4. negative effect on a region that results from economy grown within another region
    backwash effect
  5. location where large shipping is broken into small containers for deivery to local markets
    break bulk point
  6. traditional business with stores that trade/retail occur
    brick and mortar business
  7. industries whose products wiegh more after packaging
    bulk gaining industries
  8. industries whose final products wigh less than parts
    bulk reduucing industries
  9. national/global regions where economic power is concentrated
  10. model of spatial structure of developmeent in which underdeveloped countries are defined by dependence on a developed core region
    core-periphery model
  11. regions that fali to gain from national economic development
    economic backwaters
  12. manufacturing activities where cost of transporting raw materials anf finished prodcuts don't matter bc of determining location of the firm
    footloose firms
  13. overseas business investments made by private companies
    foreign investment
  14. total value of goods prodcued within borders of a country during time period
    GDP gross domestic product
  15. total value of goods including income received from abroad produced by residents of a country within specific time period
    GNP gross national product
  16. development of life expectancy, education, and income
    HDI human development index
  17. Describes location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor
    Least-cost theory
  18. US firms that have factories just outside the US/Mexican border
  19. Measure of goods/services made by a country in a year
    net national product
  20. areas designed to promote business transactions and become centers for banking
    offshore financtial center
  21. countries with low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and low standards of living
  22. Using natural resources- mining agriculture forestry and fishing
    primary economic activities
  23. A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country.
  24. economic activities concerned with research, information gathering, and administration
    quaternary economic activites
  25. high level decision making for large corporations or high level scientific research
    quinary economic activites
  26. manufacturing region- great lakes
    rust belt
  27. processing of raw materials- manufacturing construction and power generation
    secondary economic activites
  28. newly industralized countries within median standards of living
  29. input cost in manufacturing that remains constant
    spatially fixed costs
  30. an input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its total amount
    spatially variable costs
  31. U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II- South- tx, florida, california
  32. Activities that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of services such as retail, transportation, government, personal, and professional services
    Tertiary economic activites
  33. A firm that conducts business in at least two seperate countries
    transnational corporation
  34. Theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi periphery in terms of economic and political connections first established at the beginning of exploration in the late 15th century and maintained through increased economic access up until the present
    World-systems theory
  35. economic and political relationships that oragnize food production for commercial purposes
  36. an agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
    animal husbandry
  37. form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods-a process requiring very little human labor.
    capital-intensive agriculture
  38. all agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption.
    commercial agricultural economy
  39. manipulation of pland and animal species by humans for themselves
  40. agriculture characterized by low inputs of labor per unit
    extensive agriculture
  41. places where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
  42. the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
    green revolution
  43. agricultural activity involving effective use of labor on small plots to maximize crop yield
    intensive cultivation
  44. type of agriculture requiring a lot of manual labor
    labor-intensive agriculture
  45. agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or raising livstock for food clothing and shelter
  46. agricultural economy found in nations in which the gov controls agricultural production & distribution
    planned agricultrual economy
  47. when soils and aird areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation- leaves salty residues that render soil
  48. tropical forest clearing for crop production until fertility is lost
    shifting cultivation
  49. farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption
    subsistence agricultrual economy
  50. the movements of livestock according to seasonal patters, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
  51. the process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
    urban sprawl
  52. an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural in terms of rent. activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
    von thunen model
  53. The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis
    action space
  54. cities made by colonizing empires as administrative centers
    colonial city
  55. model describing urban environments- rings form center (cbd)
    concentric zone model
  56. Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas
  57. cities that arose in middle ages that represent time of relative stagnation in urban growth
    feudal city
  58. The trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods
  59. market area surrounding urban center
  60. parts of large urban areas that lose portions of population as a result of change in industry
    inner city decay
  61. high population growth and migration cause people to explode in population
  62. Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex
  63. model- urban cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of a cbd
    multiple nuclei model
  64. geography centers of activity
  65. A country's leading city, with population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country
    Primate City
  66. Rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country's hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their sizes follow a certain pattern
    rank size rule
  67. model- urban land using cbd in the middle with shaped sectors radiating outwards from center along transportaion corridors
    sector model
  68. Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
    squatter settlements
  69. Geographical boundaries place around a city to limit suburban growth within that city
    urban growth boundary
  70. Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
    urban revitalization
  71. The process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the automobile provides the primary source of transportation
    urban sprawl
  72. Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
    central place theory