Anatomy

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Anatomy
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2011-05-12 22:43:46
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Anatomy
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Unit 1
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  1. Types of Joints
    • 1 - Fibrous (synarthroses): intervening tissue is merely fibrous connective tissue
    • 2 - Cartilaginous (amphiarthroses): intervening tissue is cartalige
    • 3 - Synovial (diarthroses): intervening tissue is synovial fluid
  2. Suture
    • Fibrous
    • formed by 2 bones whose articulating surfaces are serrated; immovable; located only in the skull

    ex: sagittal suture
  3. Syndesmoses
    Fibrouse

    fibrous joint in whiche the intervening connective tissue is of greater amount than that in a suture; slightly movable; located between 2 bones of the forearm and 2 bones of the leg

    ex: radioulnar syndesmosis
  4. Hyaline Cartilage Joint
    cartilaginous

    joint in which intervening tissue is hyaline cartilage; immovable; located between epiphysis and disphysis of growing bone: temporary condition

    ex: epiphyseal disc
  5. Fibrocartilaginous Joint
    cartilaginous

    joint in which interveing tissue is fibrocartilage; slightly movable

    • ex: between adjacent vertebral bodies: intervertebral discs
    • - between right and left pubic bones: interpubic disc
  6. Synovial Joint
    • intervening tissue is synovial fluid; ends of articulating bones covered by articular cartilage
    • - layer of hyaline cartilage and avascular
    • - lacks nerves
    • - radiolucent (cannot be seen)

    synovial fluid derived from blood
  7. Articular Capsule
    encapsulated synovial joint

    • connects two bones and encircles it, thus enclosing synovial cavity; 2 layers
    • - 1 - outer fibrous layer: continuous with the periosteum of bone
    • - 2 - inner layer: synovial membrane, vascular and produces synovial fluid, lubricates joint and nourishes articular cartilage
  8. Flexion
    bending of a joint so that the angle becomes more acute
  9. Extension
    straightening of a flexed joint
  10. Abduction
    movement in the frontal plane away from median plane
  11. Adduction
    movement in the front plane toward median plane
  12. Circumduction
    combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
  13. Dorsiflexion
    moving dorsum of foot away from anterior leg
  14. Plantar Flexion
    moving dorsum away from anterior leg
  15. Eversion
    moving lateral surface superiorly
  16. Inversion
    moving medial surface superiorly
  17. Limitations of Movement
    • - shape of articulating surfaces
    • - ligaments and capsule at the joint
    • - muscles that act on the joint
  18. Erudition
    search for knowledge
  19. Physiology
    subdivision of biology that is concerned with the functioning of the body

    it attempts to explain the physical and chemical processes that occur in the body
  20. Anatomy
    subdivision of biology that is concerned with the structure or morphology of the body

    • Anatomy (Greek)
    • ana = apart
    • tomy = cut

    • Dissect (Latin)
    • dis = apart
    • sectare = cut
  21. Cytology
    study of cells

    • kytos = cells
    • logos = knowledge of
  22. Histology
    study of tissues

    histo = tissue
  23. Gross Anatomy
    study of structure visible with the naked eye
  24. Surface Anatomy
    study of the surface structures
  25. Developmental Anatomy
    embryology

    development of the body prior to birth
  26. Comparative Anatomy
    comparing human structure to that of other animals
  27. Radiology
    use of radiation to visualize internal body structure
  28. Anatomical Pathology
    study of tissue that departs from the normal and thus is diseased
  29. Cell
    smallest unit of living matter and the characteristic building block of all plant and animal tissues
  30. Tissue
    collection of cells of similar structure and function
  31. Organ
    consists of one of more tissues blended in such a way as to form a structure, which can perform one function or related functions
  32. Organ System
    consists of one or more organs that act together in performing a major function of the body
  33. Body
    composed of the 12 organ systems
  34. Regional
    according to the natural subdivisions of the body

    head, neck, thorax, abdomen, back, trunk, upper limb, etc.
  35. Systemic
    according to the major body systems

    collections of organs that perform related functions
  36. Circulatory System
    heart, blood vessels

    transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, removes waste molecules that are excreted from the body
  37. Lymphatic System
    lymphatic vessels, nodes, supporting lymphocytes, and the lymphoid organs

    protects body from disease by purifying fluid

    involves white blood cells that produce antibodies
  38. Respiratory System
    trachea, bronchi, lungs, and other respiratory pathways

    conducts air, brings oxygen into the lungs, and takes carbon dioxide out
  39. Digestive System
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

    receives food and digests it into nutrient molecules, which enter the cells
  40. Urinary System
    kidneys, ureter, bladder, urethra

    rids the body of nitrogenous wastes and helps regulate the fluid level and chemical content of the blood
  41. Integumentary System
    skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, subcutaneous tissue

    provides support and protects underlying tissues, helps regulate body temperature, contains receptors
  42. Skeletal System
    bones of the skeleton

    form and stature, attachment for muscles
  43. Muscular System
    movement of the body
  44. Articular System
    joints

    movement of the body
  45. Nervous System
    brain, spinal cord, nerves

    conducts nerve impulses to muscles and glands and receive impulses
  46. Endocrine System
    hormones

    secretes chemicals that serves as messengers between body parts, maintains proper functioning of reproductive organs
  47. Reproductive System
    reproductive organs

    reproduce
  48. Anatomical Position
    refers to the position the body must be in when using anatomical planes and terms of references

    • body longitudinal
    • upper limbs by side
    • eyes forward
    • palms forward
    • toes torward
  49. Median Plane
    Midsaggital

    vertbral plane passing through the body, dividing it into equal right and left parts
  50. Sagittal Plane
    any vertical plane that parallels the median plane and divides the body into unequal right and left parts
  51. Frontal Plane
    coronal

    any vertical plane at a right angle to the median plane that divides the body into front and back parts
  52. Horizontal Plane
    transverse

    any plane at a right angle to both the median and frontal planes that divides the body into upper and lower parts
  53. Medial
    near median plane
  54. Lateral
    farther away from median plane
  55. Anterior
    ventral

    front
  56. Posterior
    dorsal

    back
  57. Superior
    cephalic

    near head
  58. Inferior
    caudal

    near tail
  59. Proximal
    near attached end of limb
  60. Distal
    farther away from attached end of limb
  61. Internal
    near center of organ or cavity
  62. External
    farther from center of organ or cavity
  63. Superficial
    near body surface
  64. Deep
    farther from body surface
  65. Supine
    lying on back

    belly up
  66. Prone
    lying on front

    back up
  67. Integumentary System Functions
    system of body composed of the skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue, skin = largest organ, 15% of body weight

    protection of underlying tissues; acts as a site of sensory nerve receptors (pain, heat, cold, touch, pressure); regulation of body temperature; water excretion; formation of vitamin D, which is essential for calcium absorption from the foods we eat
  68. Integumentary Layers
    • - skin: 2 layers: epidermis and dermis
    • - both layers lie on an underlying layer called the subcutanous tissue
    • - thickest skin = back (1/2 cm)
    • - thinnest skin = eyelid (1/2 mm)
  69. Epidermis
    outermost layer of skin composed of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium; avascular but contains nerve receptors and nerve endings; deepest layers have cells that undergo mitosis and migrate to outermost layers, where they become desiccated, convert to keratin and eventually slough off; 30 day for cell birth --> slough; epithelium constantly regenerating; deeper layers = melanocytes -> melanin
  70. Melanin
    pigment responsible for skin color and also protects the individual from the harmful effects of UV light
  71. Keratin
    very thick on palms and soles

    forms papillary ridges that occur in characteristic patterns (finger/toe prints)
  72. Dermis
    deep to epidermis composed of a dense irregular connective tissue which does contain both blood vessels and nerves; 80% of the thickness of the skin (20% is epidermis); many collagen fibers, sweat glands, and hair follicles
  73. Subcutaneous Tissue
    deep to dermis and is made of loose connective tissue with an abundance of adipose cells; blood vessels and cutaneous nerves course through it on their way to the dermis; adipose tissue is more abundant in females than males and provides insulation, conserves body heat and acts as shock absorber
  74. Hair Follicles
    • derived from the epidermis and growing down into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue
    • - contains hairs, which form by follicle cells undergoing mitosis
    • - when a follicle becomes inactive, the hair it produces becomes lost
  75. Sebaceous Glands
    oil-producing glands that result from disintegration of some gland cells

    duct passes that oily secretion, called sebum into the neck of the hair follicle
  76. Arrector Pilorum Muscles
    smooth muscles attached to hair follicles and the epidermal-dermal junction

    contraction due to cold weather causes the hairs to stand erect and traps a layer of air within hairs, which acts as an insulator to keep body heat inside the body
  77. Sweat Glands
    have their secretion part in the dermis and their ducts passing through the epidermis to open at pores on the skin surface

    sweat is water and NaCl and cools the body as it evaporates
  78. Nails
    protective structures of hard keratin located at the tips of fingers and toes
  79. Skeletal Functions
    forms a solid framework around which the body is built

    composed of bones and cartilage; solid framework of body (supports); attachment for skeletal muscles; protection of certain vital organs (brain by skull, heart by thoracic cage); manufacture certain blood cells: hemopoiesis (bone marrow); storage of certain chemical substances
  80. Long Bone
    bone in which the length exceeds the width and is characterized by having a medullary (marrow) canal

    humerus
  81. Short Bone
    bone in which the length equals the width

    carpal bones
  82. Flat Bone
    bone expanded into one plane

    scapula
  83. Irregular Bone
    bone that does not fit into any of the other 3 categories

    vertebrae
  84. Axial Skeleton
    • part of the skeleton that occupies the central axis of the body
    • - skull and hyoid (23)
    • - vertebral column (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, sacrum, coccyx = 26)
    • - ribs and sternum (12 pairs and sternum = 25)
    • - bones of middle ear (6)
  85. Appendicular Skeleton
    comprises the appendages

    • upper limb = 64
    • lower limb = 62
  86. Sesamoid Bone
    bone located in tendons
  87. Ectopic Bone
    pathological bone formation
  88. Epiphysis
    the 2 ends of a long bone, which are wider than the shaft and take part in the formation of a joint
  89. Diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone
  90. Compact Bone
    • bone laid down in concentric layers making it appear solid
    • 1 - this type of bone forms the outer surface of all bones
    • 2 - it's thicker in the diaphysis and thinner at the epiphysis
  91. Spongy Bone
    composed of very thin plates of bone that meet other plates of bone at various angles, leaving spaces between them

    found in epiphysis
  92. Periosteum
    • connective tissue sheath composed of 2 layers
    • 1 - outer layer: tough fibrous layer that serves as a place of insertion for muscle tendons
    • 2 - inner layer: delicate cellular layer responsible for producing growth in the diameter of the bone
  93. Endosteum
    thin cellular layer found lining the medullary cavity and cavities of spongy bone

    primary function is to destroy bone, thus allowing for growth in the diameter of the marrow cavity, which prevents bone from becoming too solid and heavy as it increases in size
  94. Medullary Cavity
    marrow

    cavity running the length of the diaphysis that contains either red marrow (which actively form blood cells); yellow marrow (does not form blood cells but develops numerous fat cells) or combinations of the two
  95. Articular Cartilage
    thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surface of each epiphysis

    resilency of this material cushions the joint during movement
  96. Articular Capsule
    • connects together the twon bones and completely encircles the joint, thus enclosing a cavity that is called the joint cavity or synovial cavity
    • - outer fibrous layer: continuous with the periosteum of bone
    • - inner layer: lines the inside of the fibrous layer
    • - aka synovial membrane, vascular, produces synovial fluid, lubricates joint, nourishes cartilage
  97. Epiphyseal Disc
    in embryo of a growing child it is a cartilaginous plate located at the junction of epiphysis and diaphysis that allows for growth in the length of bone

    disc not present when growth is complete
  98. Metaphysis
    spongy bone tissue located at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphyseal disc

    in the adult, the bony tissue of the metaphysis is continuous with the epiphysis
  99. Cartilage
    • softer than bone, some degree of flexibility
    • - tough connective tissue, which is composed of cells embedded in a firm, gel-like intercellular substance
    • - lacks nerves and blood vessels
    • - nutrients diffuse through intercellular substance
    • - entire embyro skeleton is initiall cartilage, but it is replaced by bone during growth (ossification)
    • - classification via histologic appearance of the intercellular disc
  100. Hyaline Cartilage
    glassy, translucent appearance

    • epiphyseal discs - responsible for growth in length
    • articular cartilages - two bones meet each other
    • costal cartilage - between ribs and sternum
    • larynx, trachea, and bronchi - respiratory system
    • nasal cartilages
  101. Fibrocartilage
    interpubic disc (symphysis pubis)

    intervertebral discs (between adjacent vertebrae)
  102. Elastic Cartilage
    auricle - part of external ear (pinna)

    auditory tube - connects ear and pharynx

    epiglottis - flap that keeps food from entering lungs
  103. True Ribs
    1-7

    attaches to sternum via its own costal cartilage
  104. False Ribs
    8-12

    attaches to sternum NOT its own costal cartilage
  105. Floating Rib
    11 and 12

    doesn't attach to sternum
  106. Joint/Articulation
    refers to connection between components of the skeletal system

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