female reproductive system.txt

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Author:
rincrocci
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85566
Filename:
female reproductive system.txt
Updated:
2011-05-12 23:33:01
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female reproductive
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  1. Ovaries function
    • Paired glands homologous to the testes
    • Produce:
    • gametes (2ndary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs) after fertilization
    • hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, inhibin, relaxin
  2. Ovaries ligaments role
    • to hold ovaries in place.
    • Broad ligament: part of parietal peritoneum
    • Ovarian ligament: anchors ovaries to uterus
    • Suspensory ligament: attaches ovaries to pelvic wall
  3. Oogenesis
    • Begins before females are born
    • Same steps as in spermatogenesis (2n - 4haploid)
    • A few develop into primary oocytes that enter meiosis 1 during fetal development
    • each oocyte covered by a layer of follicular cells - primordial follicle
    • 2mil-200k @ birth, to 40k at puberty & 400 will mature during the lifetime
  4. Primary follicles
    • Develop FROM primordial follicles
    • Contain: primary oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells
    • Forms zona pellucida b/w granulosa cells & primary oocyte
    • Stromal cells begin forming THECA FOLLICULI
  5. Secondary follicles
    • Develop FROM primary follicles
    • Granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid in antrum
    • Innermost layer of granulosa cells ATTACHES to zona pellucida..forming CORONA RADIATA
  6. Follicular/egg development in order
    • Primordial follicle
    • primary follicle (primary oocyte & granulosa cells)
    • secondary follicle
    • Mature (graffian) follicle
    • polar body & 2ndary oocyte
    • 2nd polar body & OVUM (Mature egg): ONLY occurs if sperm fertilizes egg
    • diploid ZYGOTE (nuclei of sperm & ovum)
  7. Mature (graffian) follicle
    • Develops FROM 2ndary follicle
    • Produces 2 UNEQUAL Haploid (n) cells
    • 1st is discarded (polar body), 2nd is 2ndary OOCYTE
  8. Ovulation
    • 2ndary oocyte & 1st polar body & CORONA RADIATA expelled
    • If fertilization does not occur, cells DEGENERATE
    • If sperm penetrates 2ndary oocyte, Meiosis II resumes
  9. 2ndary Oocyte
    • if fertilized by sperm, goes through Meosis II
    • Splits into 2 cells of UNEQUAL size
    • 1st is discarded (2nd polar body), 2nd is ovum (mature egg)
  10. Diploid zygote contains
    nuclei of sperm & ovum
  11. Uterine (fallopian) tubes role
    • Provide route for SPERM to reach ovum
    • Transports 2ndary oocytes & fertilized OVA from ovaries to Uterus
    • Infundibulum (finger-like fimbriae) sweeps 2ndary oocyte into uterus
    • Ampulla is the wide, longest portion
    • Isthmus is the site where it joins uterus
  12. Uterus Anatomy
    • Fundus: top outer portion of uterus
    • Isthmus: site of joining of uterus & fallopian tube
    • Cervix: opens to the vagina
    • Anteflexion: Anterior & Superior over Bladder
    • Ligaments: maintain position (broad, uterosacral, cardinal & round)
  13. Vagina
    • Adventitia: helps anchor vagina to adjacent organs
    • Hymen: forms border around & closes vaginal orific a little
    • Mucosa: continuous w/uterine mucosa
  14. Role of mucosa in vagina:
    • Contains decomp of glycogen = acidic envir. hostile to microbes & sperm.
    • However, the alkaline components of sperm needed to raise pH and allow sperm to survive)
  15. Vulva (external female genitalia)
    • Mons pubis: cushions pubic symphisis
    • Labia majora: homologous to scrotum
    • Labia minora: homologous to spongy (penile) urethra
    • Clitoris: homologous to glans penis (2 small erectile bones w/nerves & blood vessels)
    • Vestibule: b/w labia minora. External urethral orifice, openings of several ducted glands & vag. orifice
    • Bulb of vestibule: 2 elongates masses of erectile tissue on either side of vaginal orifice
  16. Nipple
    has openings of Lactiferous ducts
  17. Mammary gland
    modifies sudoriferous glands that produce milke
  18. GnRH fxns
    • Secreted by hypothalamus
    • 1. Controls OVARIAN & Uterine Cycle
    • 2. Stimulates Release of FSH & LH from ant. pit.
  19. FSH fxns
    • 1. initiates follicular growth
    • 2. stimulates ovarian follicles to SECRETE estrogens
  20. LH fxns
    • 1. Stimulates further dev. of Ovarian follicles
    • 2. Stimulates these follicles to secrete ESTROGENS
    • 3. Stimulates thecal cells to produce ANDROGENS, which are converted to estrogens
    • 4. Triggers OVULATION
    • 5. Promotes formation of corpus luteum, which produces estrogens, progesterone, relaxin & inhibin
  21. Estrogens
    • Secreted by ovarian follicles
    • 1. Promote development & maintenance of female
    • 2. Dev & maint. of female 2nd sex char. & female reproductive STRUCTURES
    • 3. Increase Protein ANABOLISM (including bone building)
    • 4. Lowers Blood cholesterol
    • 5. INHIBITS release of GnRH, LH & FSH
  22. Progesterone
    • Secreted by corpus luteum
    • 1. Prepares & maintains ENDOMETRIUM for implantation
    • 2. Involved with Mammary glands for MILK production
    • 3. INHIBITS secretion of GnRH & LH
  23. Relaxin
    • made from corpus luteum
    • 1. Relaxes ureters by INHIBITING contraction of myometrium
    • 2. INCREASES flexibility of pubic symphysis & dialates uterine cervix (@ end of pregnancy)
  24. Inhibin
    • made from granulosa cells & by corpus luteum
    • 1. Inhibits FSH & LH Secretion

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