E.Commerce Ch 2 Vocab

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volleyball_1
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E.Commerce Ch 2 Vocab
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2011-05-14 02:17:01
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ch 2
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  1. Computer Network
    Any technology that allows people to connect computers to each other. pg 55
  2. Internet
    Is a large system of interconnected computer networks that spans the globe. pg 55
  3. World Wide Web/ Web
    Part of the Internet which is a subset of the computers on the Internet that are connected to one another in a specific way that makes them and their contents easily accessible to each other. It is software that runs on computers that are connected to the Internet. pg 55
  4. Mailing List
    Is an e-mail address that forwards any message it receives to any user who has subscribed to the list. pg 56
  5. User's News Network ( Usenet)
    Allows anyone who connects to the network to read and post articles on a variety of subjects. pg 56
  6. Newgroups
    A topic area in Usenet where people read and post articles. pg 57
  7. Network access points (NAPs)
    The four primary connection points for access to the Internet backbone in the United States. pg 58
  8. Network Access Providers
    Sell Internet access rights directly to larger customers and indirectly to smaller firms and individuals through other companies. pg 58
  9. Internet service providers (ISPs)
    A company that sells Internet access rights directly to Internet users. pg 58
  10. Internet host
    A computer that is directly connected to the Internet. pg 58
  11. Hypertext
    A page-linking system in which text on one page links to text on other pages. pg 59
  12. Hypertext Server/ Web server
    Is a computer that stores files written in HTML and lets other computers connect to it and read these files. pg 59
  13. Hpertext Markup Language (HTML)
    Is a language that includes a set of codes (or tags) attached to text. Thes codes describe the relationships among text elements. pg 59
  14. Hypertext link/ Hyperlink
    Points to another location in the same or another HTML document. pg 59
  15. Web browser
    A software interface that lets users read (or browse) HTML documents and move from one HTML document to another through text formatted with hypertext link tags in each file. pg 60
  16. Graphical user interface (GUI)
    Computer program control functions that are displayed using pictures, icons, and other easy-to-use graphical elements. pg 60
  17. Local area network (LAN)
    A network of computers that are located close together (i.e. the same building). pg 61
  18. Wide area networks (WANs)
    Networks of computers that are connected over greater distances. pg 61
  19. Circuit
    The combination of telephone lines and the closed switches that connect them to each other. pg 62
  20. Circuit Switching
    A way of connecting computers or other devices that uses a centrally controlled single connection. In this method, which is used by telephone companies to provide voice telephone service, the connection is made, data is transferred, and the connection is terminated. pg 62
  21. Packet-Switched
    A network in which packets are labeled electronically with their origin, sequence, and destination addresses. Packets travel from computer to computer along the interconnected networks until they reach their destination. Each packet can take a different path through the interconnected networks and the packets may arrive out of order. The destination computer collects the packets and reassembles the original file or e-mail message from the pieces in each packet. pg 62
  22. Packets
    The small pieces of files and e-mail messages that travel over the Internet. pg 62
  23. Routing computers/ router computers/ routers/ gateway computers/ border routers
    The computers that decide how best to forward each packet of information as it travels on the Internet to its destination. Synonymous with gateway computers and routers. pg 62
  24. Routing algorithms
    The program used by a router to determine the best path for data packets to travel. pg 62
  25. Routing tables/ configuration tables
    Is information about connections that lead to particular groups of routers, specifications on which connections to use first, and rules for handling instances of heavy packet traffic and network congestion. pg 62
  26. Internet backbone/ backbone routers
    Routers that handle packet traffic along the Internet's main connecting points. pg 63
  27. Network Control Protocol (NCP)
    Used by ARPANET in the early 1970s to route messages in its experimental wide area network. pg 63
  28. Protocol
    A collection of rules for formatting, ordering, and error-checking data sent across a network. pg 63
  29. Proprietary architecture/ closed architecture
    The use of vendor-specific communication protocols by computer manufacturers in the early days of computing, preventing computers made by different maunfacturers from being connected to each other. pg 64
  30. Open architecture
    The philosophy behind the Internet that dictates that independent networks should not require any internal changes to be connected to the network, packets that do not arrive at their destinations must be retransmitted from their source network, routers do not retain information about the packets they handle, and no global control exists over the network. pg 64
  31. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    The set of protocols that provide the basis for the operation of the Internet. The TCP protocol includes rules that computers on a network use to establish and break connections. pg 64
  32. Internet Protocol (IP)
    The set of protocols that provide the basis for the operation of the Internet. The IP protocol determines routing of data packets. pg 64
  33. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
    The version of IP that has been in use for the past 20 years on the Internet; it uses a 32-bit number (IP address) to identify the computers connected to the Internet. pg 64
  34. IP address
    The 32-bit number that represents the address of a particular location (computer) on the Internet. pg 64
  35. Base 2 (binary)
    A number system in which each digit is either a 0 or a 1, corresponding to a condition of either "off" or "on". Also known as a binary system. pg 64
  36. Dotted decimal
    The IP address notation in which addresses appear as four separate numbers separated by periods. pg 65
  37. Byte
    An 8-bit number (in most computer applications) pg 65
  38. Octet
    An 8-bit number. pg 65
  39. Subnetting
    The use of reserved private IP addresses within LANs and WANs to provide additional address space. pg 65
  40. Network Address Translation (NAT) device
    A computer that converts private IP addresses into normal IP addresses when they forward packets to the Internet. pg 65

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