shosh: first aid associations

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shosh: first aid associations
2011-05-15 06:14:35

set 1
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  1. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  2. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stimulates gastric acid secretion)
  3. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  4. Skip lesions
    Crohn's disease
  5. Dissecting aneurysm
  6. Abdominal or descending aortic aneurysm
  7. Atrophy of mammillary bodies
    • Wernicke's encephalopathy--thiamine deficiency, associated with alcoholism. Causes triad of:
    • 1. ataxia
    • 2. ophthalmoplegia
    • 3. confusion
  8. Fibrosis and shrinkage of spleen (autospleenectomy)
    sickle cell anemia
  9. Bacteremia/pneumonia in an IV drug user
    S. aureus
  10. Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
    H. pylori
  11. Bacterial meningitis in adults and the elderly
    Strep pneumonia
  12. Bacterial meningitis in newborns and kids
    Group B streptococcus--agalactiae (newborns), S. pneumonia and N. meningitidis (kids)
  13. Benign melanocytic nevus
    Spitz nevus, most common in first two decades
  14. Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
    Bernard-Soulier disease, associated with a defect in platelet adhesion
  15. Brain tumor in adults
    metastasis (supratentorial)>astrocytoma (n.b. glioblastoma multiforme)>meningioma>schwanomma
  16. Brain tumor in kids
    • Infratentorial--medulloblastoma (tumor of the cerebellum)
    • Supratentorial--craniopharyngioma
  17. Breast cancer, most common type
    infiltrating ductal carcinoma
  18. Breast mass
    • 1. fibrocystic change
    • 2. carcinoma (more common in post-menopausal women)
  19. Benign breast tumor
  20. Bacteria that infects debiliated hospitalized pneumonia patients
  21. Primary cardiac tumor in kids
  22. Cardiac manifestation of Lupus
    Libman-Sacks endocarditis (non-bacterial, affects mitral valve)
  23. Cardiac tumor in adults
    • 1. metastasis
    • 2. primary myxoma (more common in LA)
  24. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
    Arnold-Chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
  25. Chronic arrhythmia
    A. fib (high risk of emboli)
  26. Chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis
    • Predisposes to gastric carcinoma
    • Associated with pernicious anemia
  27. Clear cell vaginal adenocarcinoma
    Associated with maternal DES use during pregnancy
  28. Most common cause of CAH
    21 hydroxylase deficiency
  29. Most common congenital cardiac abnormality
  30. Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
    Dubin-Johnson syndrome, black liver, due to inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile. Not clinically significant.
  31. Common cause of constrictive pericarditis in developing world
  32. Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
  33. Cretinism
    Iodine deficiency/hypothyroidism
  34. Cushing's syndrome
    • Corticosteroid therapy
    • Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
  35. Cyanosis in a baby
    Teratology of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
  36. Cyanosis in an adult
  37. Cause of death in CML
    blast crisis
  38. Cause of death in SLE
  39. Dementia
    • Alzheimer's
    • multiple infarcts
  40. Demyelinating disease
  41. DIC
    • gram negative sepsis
    • obstetric complications
    • burn trauma
    • cancer
  42. Diverticulum in pharynx
    Zenker's diverticulum
  43. Ejection click
    aortic or pulmonic stenosis
  44. Most common esophageal cancer
    squamous cell carcinoma, associated with smoking
  45. Food poisoning
    S. aureus
  46. Glomerulonephritis in adults
    IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease)
  47. Bacterial endocarditis
    • rheumatic fever--mitral valve or aortic valve
    • IV drug use--tricuspid valve
  48. Most common Helminth infections in US
    • Enterobius vermicularis
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
  49. Epidural hematoma
    • rupture of middle meningeal artery due to head trauma
    • fast bleeding
  50. Subdural hematoma
    • rupture of bridging veins, due to blunt trauma
    • bleeding is slow, can take days to manifest
  51. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    aneurysm in Circle of Willis
  52. Hemochromatosis
    • multiple transfusions causes Fe buildup
    • Can result in:
    • CHF
    • hepatocellular carcinoma
  53. HCC
    cirrhotic liver, associated with Hep B and C
  54. Hereditary bleeding disorder
    von Willebrand's disease
  55. Hereditary harmless jaundice
    Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  56. HLA-B27
    • ankylosing spondylitis
    • Reiter's syndrome
    • ulcerative colitis
  57. HLA-DR3 or DR-4
    • DM type I
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • SLE
  58. Holosystolic murmur
    • VSD
    • tricuspid regurg
    • mitral regurg
  59. Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
    • hypercoagulability
    • endothelial damage
    • blood stasis
  60. Secondary hypertension associated with ___
    renal disease
  61. Most common cause of hypoparathyroidism
  62. Most common cause of hypopituitarism
  63. Common infection during blood transfusion
    Hep C
  64. 3 types of kidney stones:
    • calcium--radiopaque
    • struvite--ammonium, radiopaque, formed by urease positive bacteria (P. vulgaris, staphylococcus)
    • uric acid--radiolucent, diagnose with US
  65. Eisenmenger's syndrome
    • a late cyanotic shunt, in which a L-->R shunt becomes a R-->L shunt, due to increasing pulmonary hypertension. Caused by-
    • ASD
    • VSD
    • PDS
  66. Lysosomal storage disease
  67. Malignancy associated low grade fever, weight loss, and night sweats
  68. Malignant skin tumor
    Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
  69. Causes of mental retardation
    • Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
    • Fragile X syndrome (anticipation)
  70. Mets to bone
    • breast
    • lung
    • liver
    • testes
    • prostate
    • kidney
  71. Mets to brain
    • lung
    • breast
    • skin (melanoma)
    • kidney (RCC)
    • GI
  72. Mets to liver
    • colon
    • gastric
    • pancreatic
    • breast
    • lung
  73. Mitral valve stenosis
    rheumatic heart disease
  74. Myocarditis
    Coxsackie B
  75. Common neoplasms in kids
    • ALL
    • Cerebellar medulloblastoma
  76. Common nephrotic syndrome in adults
    Membranous glomerulonephritis
  77. Nephrotic syndrome in kids
    Minimal change disease, associated with infection/vaccination. Treat with corticosteroids.
  78. Opening snap
    mitral stenosis
  79. Opportunistic infection in AIDS patients
  80. Common site of mets
    adrenals, due to rich blood supply
  81. Most common organ to give off mets
    lungs>breast, stomach
  82. Osteomyelitis-
    1. Most common
    2. In sickle cell disease
    3. In IV drug users
    • Most common--S. aureus
    • Sickle cell--salmonella
    • IV drug users--pseudomonas
  83. Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma, linitis plastica
    Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet ring cells)
  84. Most common benign ovarian tumor
    serous cystadenoma
  85. Most common malignant ovarian tumor
    Serous cystadenocarcinoma
  86. Pancreatic tumor
    adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas (can compress bile duct and cause jaundice)
  87. Causes of acute pancreatitis
    • alcoholism, gallstones
    • (alcoholism and CF cause acute pancreatitis)
  88. Most commonly affected with Hodgkin's
    Young males (except for nodular sclerosing type, which is young females)
  89. Common cause of PID
    N. gonorrhea (also causes arthritis of large joints)
  90. Philadelphia chromosome
    • t(9:22)
    • CML
    • produce bcr-abl fusion
    • treat with Gleevec (imatinib)
  91. Common pituitary tumor
    • prolactinoma
    • somatotrophic (acidophilic) adenoma
  92. Primary amenorrhea
    Turners, XO
  93. Cause of primary bone tumor in adults
    multiple myeloma (CRAB)
  94. Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small and medium blood vessels in extremities
    Buerger's disease, associated with smoking
  95. Renal tumor
    • RCC, associated with von Hippel-Lindau and APCD
    • can cause paraneoplastic syndromes, due to oversecretion of EPO/renin/PTH/ACTH
  96. Right heart failure, due to pulmonary cause
    cor pulmonale
  97. S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
    increased ventricular filling (L-->R shunt, mitral regurg, LV failure)
  98. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    sound of blood hitting a non-compliant LV (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  99. Secondary hyperparathyroidism
    hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  100. Most common STD in US
  101. SIADH
    associated with SCC of the lung
  102. Common sites of atherosclerosis
    abdominal aorta>coronary arteries>popliteal artery>carotids
  103. Stomach ulcerations and elevated gastrin
    ZE (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  104. t(14:18)
    follicular lymphoma (bcl-2 activation)
  105. t(8:14)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
  106. Temporal arteritis
    risk of ipsilateral blindness, due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
  107. Most common thyroid cancer
    papillary carcinoma
  108. Most common tumor in women
    leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
  109. Tumor of infancy
  110. Adrenal medulla tumors
    • Adults--pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
    • Kids--neuroblastoma (usually malignant)
  111. Causes of UTIs
    • E. coli
    • Staph saprophyticus
  112. Cause of viral encephalitis