congenital anomalies

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  1. congenital anomalies can happen in
  2. 5 different anomalies that can happen depending on where the fistula is location
    • tracheo-esophageal anomalies
    • choanal atresia
    • pierre-robin syndrome aka retrognathia
    • congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    • necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
  3. the esophagus is trunkated- a dead end
    esophageal atresia
  4. a fistula that occurs btwn the trachea and the esophagus
    tracheo-esophageal fistula
  5. is the dead end, a closure or an absence (should be a tube)
  6. opening, a communication btwn the trachea and the esophagus (comm. btwn 2 structures)
  7. clinical sign and symp of tracheo-esophageal anomalies
    • inability to swallow food or saliva
    • (if an atresia of the esophagus has a dead end on it, it will eventually fill up w/ food, liquids, saliva and eventually will not be able to swallow)
  8. the first symptom you will see in tracheo-esophageal is *
    excessive drooling
  9. main diagnosis of tracheo-esophageal *
    feeding tube/ NG tube is attempted to pass, it will not be able to passed bc of the atresia
  10. treatment for tracheo-esophageal
    • keep neonate elevated 30' will help with the aspiration and drooling
    • surgical repair
  11. 2. choanal atresia has to deal with the
  12. choanal atresia occurs when a
    membrane in the nasal cavity fails to disenagrate. it should disenagrate on its own
  13. see signs of distress, may see retractions, cyanotic.
  14. how to diagnose choanal atresia
    inability to pass a NG tube or feeding tube or catheter.
  15. tx of choanal atresia
    • immediate insertion of an oral airway
    • have membrane surgically removed.
  16. 3 pierre robin syndrome is also known as
  17. pierre robin syndrome has to do w/ the
    • mandible/chin
    • (underdevelopement of the jaw or hypoplasia, makes it look like they have a big tongue which blocks the airway)
  18. clinical signs and symptoms of pierre robin
    • resp distress
    • choke on their feedings
    • chronic hypoxia
  19. diagnosis of pierre robin
    visual observation
  20. treatment of pierre robin
    • position them on their bellys (prone)
    • -will help tongue to fall forward
    • insert nasalpharyngeal airway
  21. 4 congenital diaphragmatic hernia, diaphragm does not
    • develop fully of the 2 hemidiaphragms
    • failure of the diaphragm to fully develop
  22. most common diaphragmatic hernia are on the
    90% on the left side
  23. will have a flat, sunken belly called
  24. diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    utero, when an ultrasound is done
  25. treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    • surgically closed
    • oral phragngeal tube down so u can get as much air out of the stomach and intestine as u can
  26. 5 necrotizing enterocolitis NEC
    dead bowls, a portion of th ebowel undergo necrosis
  27. necrotizing means
  28. enterocolitis means
    inflammation of the colon and small intestine
  29. NEC is primarly seen in
    premature neonates
  30. NEC causes
    • no definitive cause know for why this happens
    • related to bacteria or infection
  31. NEC signs and symptoms
    • have abdominal distenstion
    • not able to tolerate feedings
    • stools will look abnormal - rectal bleeding, bloody stools
  32. NEC diagnosis
    x ray of the abdomen- will see air escaping intho the abdomen if u have death of the bowel tissue.
  33. NEC treatment
    • NG tube asap to decompress as much air as u can
    • want to stop feedings
    • antibiotics bc of death of the bowel, will have bowel content escaping into the abdomen causing an raging infection.
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congenital anomalies
congenital anomalies
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