Review for Final XD

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Review for Final XD
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2011-05-17 13:24:02
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    1. Psychodynamic: View of disorders
        1. problems due to unconscious
        2. childhood tramas. Fixated at an earlier stage of development. Ego helps
        3. cope with the unconscious conflicts of childhood.
    • i. Oral,
    • anal, phallic, latency, genital.
  1. Goals of Psychodynamic
    • uncover the fixations of development and traums in order to

    • give the client long term emotional release and understanding (catharsis) outcomes: abstract and difficult to
    • study.
  2. Behavioral view cause of mental disorders
    • proglems
    • are due to experiences in life in which one has learned behaviors that are
    • problematic.
  3. operant conditioning
    • Organism
    • operates on environment; we learn to behave in certain ways due to rewards or
    • punishments
  4. aversion
    therapy
    :
    • adding
    • something negative to change behavior
  5. Modeling
        1. learned behaviors
        2. responses from observing others.
  6. tenets
    of the behavioral view
    • i. Cons:
    • too simplistic, unrealistic, ignores cognition
    • ii. Pros:
    • powerful force in the field, rooted in empiricism, high support in RX
  7. Cognitive view






        • Cause of abnormal
        • functioning: Faulty assumptions and attitudes, illogical thinking
        • processes. i.g. overgeneralization









  8. albert
    Ellis
    • i. ppl
    • are guided by irrational beliefs that lead them to act and react in
    • anppropriate ways.
    • 1.

    • Basic Irrational
  9. Aaron
    Beck
    • i. PPl
    • have silent assumptions that things are unsafe till proven otherwise or its
    • best to always assume the worse.


      1. second-generation theory:
        New Wave Cognitive, what are the TWO theoriest


    Wells, Borkovec
  10. Adrian
    Wells
    • worrying
    • helps them deal with threats
  11. Borkovec (Avoidance Theory
    • is that GAD occurs among people who have greater bodily arousal than others.
    • Worrying lessons bodily arousal.
  12. (ACT)
    Acceptance and commitment therapy
        1. accept the issue and
        2. avoid the maladaptive behavior/cogn.
  13. Overgeneralizations:






        • the drawing of broad
        • negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event.





  14. Humanistic view:



      • Emphasis on ppl as
      • friendly, cooperative and constructive: driven to self-actualization.


  15. conditions of worth:
        1. when unconditional
        2. positive regard is not received.
  16. unconditional positive regard
    • one
    • of the 3 characteristics (unconditional
    • positive regard, accurate empathy, Genuiness)d a therapist must have in Client-Centered Therapist. (full and warm acceptance for the
    • client)

  17. Existential view




      • Emphasis on
      • self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on
      • authenticity.


  18. Existential view Philosophy
    ppl to often look to others for guidance, explanations and authority.
  19. Existential view Techniques
    • Clients
    • are encouraged to take responsibility for their lives. Client and dr build
    • relationship to overcome issues of avoidance
  20. Biological view
    • abnormal behavior is a illness brought about by

    • malfunctioning parts of the organism.
  21. role of CNS in anxiety
    • involuntary activities of the organs: breathing, heartbeat,

    • blood pressure and perspiration.
  22. symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder
    • free-floating excessive worrying. Muscle tension, sleep

    • disturbances, restlessness, fatigue.
  23. psychodynamic view of anxiety disorders
    • Three types of anxiety: Realistic, neurotic (prevented from

    • expressing id impulses), and moral (punished when impulses are expressed).
    • People control impulses by using ego defense mechanisms. GAD means one believes
    • their impulses are wrong or that their ego defenses have broken down because
    • they were too week.
  24. symptoms of panic disorder
    • Burst of terror, shortness of breath, sweating, hot/cold

    • flashes, chest pains, dizziness, feelings of unreality. Worried about the next attack.
  25. Panic attack with Agoraphobia
    • fear that a panic attack will occur where escape will be

    • difficult.
  26. OCD symptoms
    • invasive repetitive thoughts, ideas, impulses or mental

    • images. Repetitive and rigid behaviors that a person feels compelled to
    • perform. Obsessions cause intense anxiety
    • and compulsions prevent or reduce it.
  27. ERP
    • exposure response prevention.

  28. Brain regions affected by OCD
    • : orbitalfrontal

    • cortex and caudate nuclei part
    • of a brain circuit that usually converts sensory info into thoughts and
    • actions. (THALAMUS, AMYGDALA, CINGULATE CORTEXT) no filtering of thoughts into
    • actions. Serotonin and brain circuit to active.
  29. common types of compulsions and themes of
    obsessions
    • most common theme is dirt or contamination. Other violence,

    • aggression, orderliness, religion, sexuality. Themes may vary from culture to
    • culture.
  30. Incidence of unipolar depression in U.S

    7-12% suffer from severe depression per year.

  31. DSM
    criteria for classification for Depression
    • behavior, cognition, emotional, motivation, bodily, great

    • distress.
  32. theory of attribution: Seligman
    • , internal blame,

    • stable behavior, Global apply to everything.
  33. cognitive treatments for depression:
    • examine automatic thoughts, error in cognition, challenge

    • and change mal adaptive assumptions.
  34. gender and depression

    Woman twice as likely to suffer from depression.

  35. Stress Disorders: Adjustment
    disorder
    • emo behavior that does not fit DSM criteria for depression

    • or anxiety
  36. Acute and Posttraumatic stress

    reactions to traumatic events that are actual or threatened.

  37. PTSD
    • 1. Re-experience the event

    • 2. avoid activites that remind one of trauma

    • 3. recued responsiveness and dissociationg, loss of memory

    • 4. increased arousal, anxiety and guilt.

  38. Treatment of PTSD
    • antianxiety/depression
    • drugs, exposure techniques. EMDR (Eye movement desensitization and
    • reprocessing)
  39. Definitions of conversion disorder
    • 1+ physical symptom or deficit that affects voluntary motor

    • functioning. Psychological conflict that is converted to a physical symptom.
    • Shows during periods of stress.
  40. somatoform problems of BDD
    • Belief
    • in serious physical defect in appearance
  41. BDD Treatments
    • ERP,
    • SSRI’
  42. , hypochondria disorder:
    • Interpret
    • Normal boditly functions as serious problems
  43. Hypchondria Tx
    • same
    • as BDD
  44. pain disorders
    • long-term
    • medical problesm do not respond to treatment
  45. Treatment of Pain Disorder:
    • SIR,
    • Confront, PTSD Tx)
  46. Holmes and Roye (social
    adjustment scale
    )
    SIR in Somatoforms
    • immunute
    • system and illness are linked. Score of 300+ means your 80% likely to get ill.
  47. Schwartz Disregulation Model of Stress
    • : feed back loop

    • involving the Brain and environment issues that cause physical problems.
  48. Friedman and Roseman: Type A

    more prone to stress and stroke. High achievement oriented.


  49. Anorexia Nervosa

    • : fear of being

    • over weight, under 85% of normal weight, mess 3 menstral cylces, body issues.
  50. role of
    hypothalamus in eating and satiation
    • : Lateral

    • Hypothalamu- Hunger, Ventromedial
    • Hypothalamus – Fullness.
  51. weight set point
    • LH
    • and VMH are weight Thermosta
  52. weight set points
    • A) If weight falls below set points. Hunger goes up,

    • metabolism goes down, and binges result. B) if weight rises above set point:
    • hunger decreases, metabolism rises
  53. enmeshed family patterns
    • overinvolvement
    • and over concern about members lives.
  54. explanations of eating disorders
    • : A)societal attitudes: before only white rich women, now

    • its every SES class worried about weight. Prejudice against fat ppl or
    • preoccupation with weight. B) families that emphasize thinness and appearance.
    • Abnormal over concern family.
  55. name the symptoms of GAD
    • tense, distraced, worried, sleep issues, poor appetite.
    • for six months
  56. symptoms of OCD
    ideas, impulses that lead to worry than rituals
  57. symptoms of unipolar mood disorder
    • sad, neg. thought, less energy, appetitie is off, pain.
    • .Two weeks
  58. symptoms of Briquet's
    dizzy, indigestion, importent, bodily pain, not rlieved with med. treatment.
  59. symptoms of panic disorder
    recurrent dizziness, sweats, hyperventilation, unreality. pearsk in 10 mins
  60. seligman's attribution theory
    internal, global, and stable set of beliefs about self
  61. schwartz's disregulation model
    feed back loop in body goes awry after enviro. and body interact
  62. HOlmes and Raye ( Social Adjustment Rating Scale)
    created points for life events to asses illness
  63. Korsakoff's Syndrome
    Anterograde (no new memories but for procedures) memory problesm due to alohol abuse (deficiency of B Vit. )
  64. Best therapy for GAD
    Cognative
  65. Best therapy for OCD
    ERP (expousre response prevention)
  66. best therapy for phobia about spiders
    behavioral exposure
  67. BDD
    ERP
  68. Hysterical Somatoform Disorders
    SIR (Suggestion, insight, and Reinforcement)
  69. best thearpy for Stress Disorders
    • Verbalize in detail than relax
    • EMDR
  70. what is BIOfeedback
    palce electrodes on muscles that attach to electromyography machine to indicate body signals
  71. What is ECT
    120-140 volts to convulse brain
  72. therapy for DID with lost time
    Hypnotherapy, gaps in memroy, fuse personalities.
  73. Thorazine Treats what?
    Psychosis
  74. Benzodiazepine treats what ?
    GAD
  75. MAO inhibitors and Tricyclics treat what?
    Depression
  76. SSRI's and SNRI treat what?
    depression
  77. Abilify treats what?
    Bipolar
  78. what neurotransmiter is involved with anxiety
    GABA
  79. what neurotransmiter is involved with Unipolar Mood Disorder
    Serotonin and Norep.
  80. what neurotransmiter is involved with schizophrenica
    Dopamine
  81. what neurotransmiter is involved with OCD
    Serotonin
  82. what neurotransmiter is involved with Bipolar and whats faulty
    Faulty ion exchange or low sertonin, high Norep.
  83. Identify this somatoform or label: brief but sever losee of fucntion when under stress
    conversion disorder
  84. Identify this somatoform or label: constant worry over minor physical discomforts
    hypercondria
  85. Identify this somatoform or label: obsession with imagined flaws in apperance
    BDD
  86. Identify this somatoform or label: long-term physical pain that does not respond to medical intervention
    Pain Disorder
  87. Identify this somatoform or label: gas, blurred vision, indigestion, sexual impotence and pain point to....
    briquet's or somatization disorder
  88. DID condtion, supply the label: inability to recall important personal events and information
    Amnesia
  89. DID condtion, supply the label: two or more separate personalities with distinct memories, emotion, etc.
    Dissociative identity disorder
  90. DID condtion, supply the label: forgets i mportant info and flees to an entirely new location
    Dissociative Fugue
  91. types of subersonalites (3)
    mutually amnesic, mutually cognizant, and one-way amnesic
  92. Causes of DID
    truama in childhood of phys or sex. nature that was repeated and the child used repression
  93. what is the relationship between SES and Schizo?
    LOwest SES has 5 times more that the highest SES
  94. Label for Schizo. that is incoherent, confused, flat affect
    disorganized
  95. Schizophrenia type where ideas dont flow or make scense
    loos association
  96. Schizophrenia where motor movements are stiff or agitated:
    Catatonic
  97. Label for Schizophrenia who is delusional and hullucinating
    paranoid
  98. Behavioral Therapy: systematic desensitization:
    createds hierachy of fears and then introduce relaxation at each level. remain relaxed while thiking of interacting with feared object.
  99. Behavioral Therapy: modeling
    observe and then emulate the behavior of another person who is getting rewarded
  100. Behavioral Therapy, Operant Conditioning
    Behavior that de or increases because it has been reinforced previously
  101. Behavioral Therapy Classical Condtioning:
    making associatation betweeen stimulus and response dynamic
  102. critque of behaviorism:
    ignores thoughts anticipation and motivation and focuses only on the observed actions, satements and movements of others
  103. Cognitive Theory ID the condtion: jenny says, 'ill never be happy again' this exhibits what sort of irrational thinking?
    overgeneralization
  104. Cognitive Theory ID the condtion: in this situation where dave has soical anxiety he says to himself " i am going to talk to five new people today' this technique is known as?
    Self instruction training
  105. Anna thinks that
    people who frown at her think she is unattractive. What mistake is she making?
    Mindreading
  106. Beck and Ellis believe
    that thoughts precede what
    Feelings and Actions
  107. Cognitive therapy is most effective in treating
    what disorder
    unipolar mood disorder
  108. What is the weight set point?
    • 1)

    • Hypothalamus
    • tries to maintain weight in a limited range; metabolism shifts
  109. Describe an enmeshed family pattern

    • 1)

    • Overinvolved
    • with family, poor boundaries and lack of indepedence
  110. What do the VMH and LH do within the body
    • 1)

    • VMH
    • signals fullness while LH signals hunger
  111. Treatments for Anorexia?
    • 1)

    • 1:1
    • nursing care, family therapy and increased caloric intake.
  112. Treatments for
    Bulimics?
    • 0)

    • Group
    • therapy, SSRIs, diaries to identify triggers.
  113. Humanistic therapy focuses on UPR. What is it
    and how does one obtain it?
    • No conditions of
    • worth; therapist who is genuine, empathic and honest; active listening.
  114. How does an existentialist proceed with
    treatment
    • 1)

    • Urges
    • freedom and responsibility; confrontational to encourage authenticity; role
    • plays.
  115. Explain how PTSD therapists help
    • 1)

    • They
    • educate S’s about symptoms (sleeplessness and nightmares, distancing from
    • friends and family, edginess) and what to expect. Then expose them to fear
    • while relaxing; also help them with drugs and groups.
  116. How would a PA therapist treat DID?
    • Dreams, free
    • associations and insight into the unconscious material that drives them to
    • dissociate.
  117. PDs involve rigidity in two of four domains.
    What are the four?
    • 0)

    • Affective,
    • cognitive, interpersonal, impulse control.
  118. Name a PD that is characterized by angry,
    suspicious and asocial behavior
    Paranoid
  119. ID the PD that involves exagerated language,
    superficial behavior and attempts at being the center of attention :
    Histrionic
  120. Name the PD that is characterized by feelings of
    worthlessness and shyness:
    Avoidant
  121. What
    percentage of people are classified with a PD?

    9-13% But many individuals have more than one.

  122. What treatments are best for impulse control
    disorders such as gambling?
    • Avoidance or limit
    • setting; GA.
  123. Which PDs have better
    treatment outcomes?
    • 0)

    • Those in
    • the Anxious Category - Avoidant, Dependent, OCPD.
  124. Which PD responds best to low levels of
    clozapine?
    Schizotypal
  125. If James charms you so that he can ask for a
    loan and then never repays you for it, he might be:
    antisocial
  126. Manny believes he has the best personality and
    is the best performer in his company.
    However, he never compliments anyone else. He’s egotistical to a fault.
    He may have Narcissistic PD.
  127. If a therapist involves a client in feeling
    positive emotions, studying the emotions of others, and learning social
    skills, I might be treating for:

    schizoid PD.

  128. Depression: Describe an motivational symptom of depression
    No goals or volition.
  129. Depression: Describe a somatic symptom of depression
    Gas, pain
  130. Depression: Describe a cognitive
    symptom
    Pessimistic, negative
  131. Depression, Describe a behavioral symptom
    • 1)

    • talks
    • and moves slowly
  132. How long should
    depression persist?
    2 weeks or more
  133. Impulse Control Disorders:When one’s response is out of proportion to a
    provocation?

    • 0)

    • Intermittent
    • Explosive Disorder
  134. Impulse Control Disorders: One cannot resist the thrill of stealing even
    though they can afford the item.

    Kleptomania
  135. Impulse Control Disorders:Gets a thrill from setting fires to watch their
    power

    Pyromania
  136. Impulse Control Disorders: Pulling out body hairs from brows, arms, head,
    lashes

    Trichotillomania
  137. Impulse Control Disorders: What percentage of
    people suffer from Gambling ICDs?

    • At least 3% of the population; 6% of teens.

  138. Second-Generation Cognitive
    Psychology:
    Wells’ and Borkovec’s
    views of worrying suggest that it can be beneficial in what ways?

    • Reduces physical
    • arousal and stress and is a symptom of GAD.
  139. Second-Generation Cognitive Psychology:“Being mindful” of
    one’s thoughts refers to what set of attitudes?

    • Monitoring one’s
    • cognitions without judgment.
  140. Second-Generation Cognitive Psychology: ACT
    refers to what concepts in treatment?

    • 1)

    • Accepting
    • one’s symptoms and being committed to psychological well-being.
  141. Second-Generation Cognitive Psychology: Psychotics who hear voices are encouraged to
    react to them in what ways?

    • 1)

    • Be aware
    • of them but do not attempt to change them. Accept them as a symptom.
  142. Second-Generation Cognitive Psychology:DBT means what and is best at treating what
    disorder?


    • 1)

    • Dialectical
    • Behavior Therapy and is used to treat borderline PD.

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