bio biosphere

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Anonymous
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85689
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bio biosphere
Updated:
2011-05-13 19:54:37
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biology
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chapter 34
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  1. Ecology
    The study of the interactions of organisms with their environments
  2. Biosphere
    Composed of living communities and nonliving physical and chemical factors
  3. Aquatic biomes
    Fresh water and marine life
  4. Terrestrial biomes
    Categorized by climate and plant life
  5. Ecologists study environmental interactions at the levels of the:
    • Organism
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
  6. Global ecosystem
    • Called the biosphere
    • Sum of all the Earth's ecosystems
    • Most complex level in biology
  7. Biotic
    living
  8. Abiotic
    Nonliving
  9. Biotic components
    Include all organisms
  10. Abiotic components
    • Include atmospheric gases, energy, nutrients, and water
    • Organisms are affected by both components of their environment
  11. Rachel Carson
    • One of the first to perceive the global dangers of pesticide abuse
    • She documented her concerns in the 1962 book "Silent Spring"
    • The book played a key role in the awakening of environmental awareness
  12. The most important abiotic factors that determine the biosphere's structure and dynamics:
    • Solar energy
    • Temperature
    • Water
    • Nutrients
    • Other aquatic factors
    • Other terrestrial factors
  13. Pronghorn
    • A highly successful herbivorous running mammal of open country
    • Their habitat is arid, windswept, and subject to extreme temperature fluctuations
    • Pronghorns able to survive and reproduce under these conditions left offspring that carried their alleles into subsequent generations
  14. Earth's global climate patterns:
    Largely determined by the input of solar energy and the planet's movement in space
  15. The Earth is at a constant tilt of
    23.5
  16. Uneven heating causes
    Rain and winds
  17. Prevailing wind patterns in the tropics:
    Earth's rapidly moving surface deflects vertically circulating air, making the winds blow from east to west
  18. Prevailing wind patterns in temperate zones
    The slower-moving surface produces the westerlies, winds that blow from west to east
  19. Atlantic ocean currents
    • Have a profound effect on regional climates by warming or cooling coastal areas
    • They are created by winds, planet rotation, unequal heating of surface waters, and the locations and shapes of continents
  20. Mountains affect rainfall:
    Rainfall is affected by location of mountains, prevailing winds, and ocean current patterns
  21. Oceans cover about
    75% of the Earth's surface
  22. The major factors that shape aquatic communities
    Light and availability of nutrients
  23. Estuaries
    • Productive areas where rivers meet the ocean
    • The saltiness of estuaries range from less than 1% to 3%
    • They provide nursery areas for oysters, crabs, and many fishes
    • The are often bordered by extensive coastal wetlands
  24. Key factors in the distribution of marine organisms
    Sunlight and substrate
  25. Intertidal Zone
    • The wetland at the edge of an estuary or ocean, where water meets land
    • Salt marshes, sand, rocky beaches, and tide pools are part of the intertidal zone
    • It is often flooded by high tides and then left dry during low tides
  26. Pelagic zone
    • The open ocean
    • Supports highly motile animals such as fishes, squids, and marine mammals
    • Phytoplankton and zooplankton drift in the pelagic zone
  27. Benthic zone
    • The ocean bottom
    • Supports a variety of organisms based upon water depth and light penetration
  28. Photic zone
    • The portion of the ocean into which light penetrates
    • Photosynthesis occurs here
  29. Aphotic zone
    • A vast, dark region of the ocean
    • It is the most extensive part of the biosphere
    • Although there is no light, a diverse and dense population inhabits this zone
  30. Coral reefs
    • Found in warm tropical waters above the continental shelf
    • Support a huge diversity of invertebrates and fishes
  31. Coral reefs are easily degraded by:
    • Pollution
    • Native and introduced predators
    • Human souvenir hunters
  32. Important abiotic factors in freshwater ecosystems
    • Current
    • Sunlight
    • Nutrients
  33. Freshwater biomes
    Lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands
  34. Tropical forests
    • Several types occur in the warm, moist belt along the equator
    • Are the most diverse ecosystem on Earth
    • Large-scale human destruction continues to endanger many species; it may also alter world climate
  35. Savanna
    Drier, tropical areas and some nontropical areas
  36. Deserts
    • The driest of all terrestrial biomes
    • Characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall
    • Desertification is a significant environmental problem
  37. Chapparal biome
    A shrubland with cool, rainy winters and dry, hot summers
  38. Temperate grasslands
    • Found in the interiors of the continents, where winters are cold
    • Drought, fires, and grazing animals prevent trees from growing
    • Farms have replaced most of North America's temperate grasslands
  39. Temperate broadleaf forests
    • Grow where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees
    • Nearly all of the broadleaf forests in North America have been drastically altered by agriculture and urban development
  40. Northern coniferous forests
    • Taiga
    • Is characterized by long, cold winters and short, wet summers
  41. The Arctic tundra
    • Lies between the taiga and the permanently frozen polar regions
    • It is a treeless biome characterized by extreme cold, wind, and permafrost

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