Conservation biology

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Conservation biology
2011-05-13 19:31:49

chap. 38
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  1. Conservation biology
    • A goal-oriented science
    • It seeks to counter the biodiversity crisis
    • It can also protect many species at once by preserving habitats and ecosystems
  2. Biodiversity
    • Scientists estimate that the Earth has anywhere from 1.8 to 200 million species
    • Species loss may be 1000 times higher than in the past 100,000 years
  3. Levels of biodiversity
    Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity
  4. Endangered species
    • One that is "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range"
    • Protected by Endangered Species Act
  5. Threatened Species
    Those likely to become endangered in the forseeable future
  6. Coral reefs
    • 93% of coral reefs were damaged by human activities
    • 40-50% of the reefs are home to one-third of marine fish species
    • These fish could be lost in the next 30-40 years
  7. Habitation alteration is caused by:
    • Agriculture
    • Urban development
    • Forestry
    • Mining
    • Environmental pollution
  8. Major threats to biodiversity:
    • Habitat destruction
    • Invasive species
    • Overexploitation
  9. Invasive species
    • Rank behind habitat destruction as a threat to biodiversity
    • They compete with native species
    • Prey on native species
    • Parasitize native species
  10. Overexploitation
    • Overharvesting
    • It has threatened rare trees, fish, and bison
    • Hunting of wild animals for bushmeat is depleting biodiversity worldwide
  11. Global warming is most evident in Arctic:
    • Shrinking sea ice
    • Thinning ice sheets
    • Melting permafrost
  12. Phenotypic plasticity
    Altering phenotype in response to environmenal conditions
  13. Red squirrels in Canada
    Natural selection to coordinate breeding time with food availability
  14. Population fragmentation
    • A harmful effect of habitat loss
    • Splitting and isolation of portions of populations
    • Can lead to extinctions
  15. Landscape ecology
    Dynamics of a collection of ecosystems
  16. Biodiversity hot spots
    • Have a large number of endangered and threatened species
    • Have a concentration of endemic species
    • Hot spot designation favors the most noticeable organisms
  17. Zoned reserve
    • Extensive region of land with one or more areas undisturbed by humans
    • Contributes to sustainable development
  18. Sustainable development
    • Long-term prosperity of human societies and the ecosystems
    • Provide an economic base for people living there
  19. The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative
    • Seeks to preserve biodiversity by connecting protected areas
    • Created a string of parks and reserves
    • 3200 km wildlife corridor
    • Alaska across Canada to northern Wyoming
    • Included introduction of wolf populations
    • Sparked angry protests from ranchers
  20. Restoration ecology
    Uses ecological principles to restore environments
  21. Restoring environments
    • Bioremediation; using organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems
    • Replanting native vegetation
    • Repairing waterways and wetlands
  22. Lake Kissimmee
    • Restoration project
    • Restoring the natural water flow patterns of the Kissimmee River