PHAR 100 CH 25

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leti563
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85697
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PHAR 100 CH 25
Updated:
2011-05-19 00:20:23
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PHAR
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CH 25 CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS
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  1. CIRCULAR ANATOMY
    Consists of:
    • Heart
    • Lungs
    • Blood Vessels
    • Red Blood Cells
    • Plateletes
  2. RED BLOOD CELLS
    Have hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen
  3. PLATELETES
    form foundation of blood clots.
  4. HEART VALVES
    4
  5. CORONARY ARTERIES
    Provide circulation to the heart. Supplies blood and oxygen to heart muscles.
  6. CONDUCTION SYSTEM
    Generates action impulse by contracting.
  7. CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
    ANGINA PECTORIS
    • Chest pain,
    • Pressure
    • Discomfort
  8. DRUGS TO TREAT CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD)
    Increase blood flow to the heart muscle.
  9. CORONARY VASODILATORS- NITRATES
    NYTROGLYCERIN
    • Nitrostat
    • Nitro-Bid

    tablets, sprays, ointment
  10. HEART FAILURE
    The ability of the heart to provide circulation of blood to meet the oxygen and nutrient requirements of the body.
  11. CAUSES OF HEART FAILURE
    • Damage from heart attack
    • Uncontrolled hypertension
    • Valve failure
  12. SYMPTOMS OF HEART FAILURE
    Mostly due to fluid retention

    • Shortness of breath
    • Difficiulty breathing (Dyspnea)
    • Ankle swelling
    • Chest Discomfort
  13. TREATMENT FOR HEART FAILURE
    DIURRETICS
    Decrease fluid accumulation in the lungs. furosemide (Lasix) IV for emergencies PO= daily intake
  14. TREATMENT FOR HEART FAILURE
    3 TYPES
    • Diuretics
    • Inotropic Agents
    • Beta Blockers
  15. TREATMENT FOR HEART FAILURE
    INOTROPIC AGENTS
    • Increase heart muscle contraction.
    • digoxin (Lanoxin)
  16. TREATMENT FOR HEART FAILURE
    BETA BLOCKERS
    Improve heart performance
  17. HYPERTENSION
    High blood pressure
  18. HYPERTENSION CAUSES
    90% is essential hypertension. -No known cause. CENTERED IN KIDNEY.
  19. HYPERTENSION CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
    • Obesity
    • Hereditary (30%)
    • Lifestyle (Smoking)
  20. Strokes caused by
    Blood Clots
  21. Heart Attacks caused by
    Plaque
  22. HYPERTENSION RANGE
    140/90
  23. NORMAL BP RANGE
    120/80
  24. ANTIHYPERSENSITIVE AGENTS
    • Diretics
    • Beta Blockers
    • ACE inhibitors
    • Vasodilators
  25. THIAZIDE DIURETICS
    hydrochorothiazide (Hydroddiuril)

    First line of treatment for hypertension.
  26. Beta Blockers
    metroprolol (Lopressor)

    Gererally well tolerated
  27. ANTIOGENISM CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE)
    enalepril (Vasotec)

    SE's: Dry cough
  28. BETA BLOCKERS
    Improve heart contractionn rhythm.
  29. ANTIARRYTHMITIC
    OLOL
  30. VASODILATORS
    hydralazine (Apresoline)

    IV or PO
  31. ANTIARRYTHMIC AGENTS
    Beta Blockers
  32. BETA ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS
    Inhibit beta adrenergic receptors in the heart muscle.

    SE's: Bradychardia, hypotension
  33. CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
    Blocks calcium action in heart muscle. Which decreases irritability.

    SE's: Bradychardia, with heart block
  34. PROCAINAMINE
    Effective oral antiarrythmic

    SE's: Hypotension, allergic reations
  35. ANTILLIPEMIC AGENTS
    Lipemia= Elevated fat levels in the blood.
  36. STATIN DRUGS
    Used to lowere cholesterol.

    Inhibit cholesterol production in the liver.
  37. ANTICOAGULANTS
    Prevent the formation of blood clots.
  38. warfarin (Sodium) (Coumadin)
    • Oral drug- onset slow but duration is long.
    • Monitored with bloodtesting.
    • Antidote to overdose is Vitamin K
  39. ANTICOAGULANTS
    HEPARIN
    • Cannot be absorbed GI
    • Given SubQ or IV

    Uses: Diluted and used to flush IV's to keep them from clottting.
  40. ANTICOAGULANTS
    ENOXAPARIN (Lovenox)
    SubQ injection, more rapid acting &safer than coumadin.

    Blood monitoring not neccessary.

    SE's: Beuising at injection site.
  41. PLATELET INHIBITOR THERAPY
    Gentler way to prevent blood clots.

    uSED TO PREVENT HEART ATTACKS AND STROKES.
  42. PLATELET INHIBITOR THERAPY
    2 TYPES
    aspirin- risk of GI side effect

    clopidogrel- (Plavix) For coronary artery disease, very effective, Few SE's
  43. THROMBOLYTIC AGENTS
    • Dissolve blood clots.
    • Lifesaving treatment for acute MI & stroke.
    • Must be given w in 2-4 hrs of onset of symptoms.
  44. STREPTOKINASE
    • Extremely dangerous.
    • Given only in ICU or ER settings

    SE's: massive bleeding
  45. THROMBO=
    BLOOD CLOT
  46. LYTIC=
    TO DESTROY

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