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1944 under FDR. Free tuition for soldiers. It drove residential patterns. Created the suburbs.
The marshall plan (ERP)
European Recovery Plan. 13 billion dollars in grants to rebuild Europe.
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act.
Eisenhower came up with it. If a war was to be fought here, it would be easier to transport soldiers.
Residential patterns got stimulated.
Problems with suburbs
- Commute time
- Resource depletion
- Automobile Dependency
- Social Isolation
- Capital Relocation/Shift
policy in which minorities were denied loans to move out. Created white flight.
- Lack of transit resources
- High Degree of turnover
- Cost us money indirectly
- Isolation leads to Apathy
Crime in the city
Density, concentrated in poverty, more people.
Banks, savings and loans, government agencies, insurance companies refuse to make home and small business loans to insure their property to the poor people or minorities.
a strategic real estate agency maneuver that encouraged whites to sell their houses at a loss by implying that minorities were moving into the neighborhood.
movement in which predominantly upper middle class, middle class, and working class whites fled from the central cities to suburbs.
a suburban city of at least 100,000 that has experienced double digit growth each decade since it became urban
low-density, automobile-dependent development outside of the central city.
Commute times for chicago
It is above the average with 95 mintues to 90 minutes average.
Threat to democracy. We tend to just care about ourselves. Automobile dependency adds to this.
Social isolation and less use of the public transportation.