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The rentention of information or experience over time.
The process by which information gets into memory storage
Levers of Processing
- refers to the idea that encoding occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory
- Shallow level- sensory or physical features of stimuli are analyzed
- Intermediate level- stimulus is recognized and given a label
- Deepest level - info is processed semantically, in terms of its meaning.
the extensiveness of processing at any given level
ecompasses how information is retained over time and how it is represented in memory
States thtat memory storage involves 3 seperate systems.
- Sesnory memory - time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds
- Short term memory - Time frames up to 30 seconds
- Long term memory - time frames up to a lifetime
name given to auditory sensory memory
name given to visual sensory memory
fast movement of eyes
a 3 part system that temporarily holds information as people perform cognitive tasks
the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
the retention of information about the where, when, and what of lifes happenings.
is the persons knowledge about the world
i.e. knowledge about meanings of words, famous people, important places, and common things.
memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience
i.e. skills of playing a sport, or typing
involves memory for skill
is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
is the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery.
states that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
- -Proactive interference - occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later.
- -Retroactive interference - disrupts the retreval of information learned earlier
states that when somthing new is learned, a neurochemical "memory trace" is formed, but over time this trace tends to disintergrate.
Method of loci: develop an image of items to be remembered and then store them mentally in familiar locations
Keyword method: attach vivid imagery to important words.
Acronyms: create a word from the first letter of items to be remembered.