Biology Midterm Lecture

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rjc146
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8580
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Biology Midterm Lecture
Updated:
2010-03-01 02:05:03
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biology
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Study guide via flashcards for Biology
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  1. The instructions for growth and development are in _______.
    DNA
  2. A mutation is a change in ________.
    Hereditary instruction
  3. The ability to acquire, store, transfer, or utilize energy is called ________.
    metabolism
  4. The ability to maintain a constant internal environment is _________.
    homeostasis
  5. Which is the smallest unit of life?
    a cell
  6. Which of the following is defined as “all of the various species living in the same area”?
    community
  7. Organisms that are producers obtain their energy from ______.
    the sun
  8. The genus portion of a scientific name when printed _________.
    always capitalized, always italicized
  9. A scientific name consists of ___________________.
    genus name and species name
  10. A scientific principle is a(n) _____________.
    synthesis of several explanations of many observations
  11. Of the following, which is called an “educated guess”?
    hypothesis
  12. In a scientific experiment, conditions that could affect the outcome of the experiment, but do not because they are held constant, are called _________.
    controlled variables
  13. In order to arrive at a solution to a problem, a scientist usually proposes and tests __________.
    hypotheses
  14. An experimenter will not do which of the following?
    manipulates dependent variables
  15. The control in an experiment
    allows a standard of comparison for the experimental group
  16. Science is based on ________.
    evidence
  17. A process that is found only in plants and some bacteria is __________.
    photosynthesis
  18. Most organisms exhibit this characteristic when trying to maintain constant environments.
    homeostasis
  19. The capacity to acquire, store, and use energy is known as __________.
    metabolism
  20. The process in which one generation replaces another is __________.
    reproduction
  21. Today, scientists usually agree that there are _____ kingdoms.
    six
  22. Corn belongs to which of the following kingdoms?
    Kingdom Plantae
  23. Molds and mildew belong to __________.
    Kingdom Fungi
  24. Four of the five answers listed below are necessary characteristics to the life of an individual. Select the exception:
    • metabolism
    • homeostasis
    • development
    • heredity
    • Diversity*
  25. Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the scientific method. Select the exception:
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • experimentation
    • Philosophy*
    • conclusion
  26. Four of the five answers listed below are taxonomic categories. Select the exception:
    • family
    • Kind*
    • species
    • order
    • genus
  27. Four of the five listed below are characteristics of life. Select the exception:
    • Ionization*
    • metabolism
    • reproduction
    • growth
    • cellular organization
  28. Four of the five answers listed below are names of kingdoms. Select the exception:
    • Animalia
    • Protista
    • Bacteria*
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
  29. The nucleic acid core of a virus may be composed of ______________________.
    DNA or RNA
  30. Tissues are composed of _______.
    cells
  31. A ____________ obtains carbon and energy from the remains, products or wastes of organisms.
    decomposer
  32. Viruses have a _______ and a _____________.
    DNA or RNA core; protein coat
  33. Which of the following are a group of viruses that infect bacterial cells?
    Bacteriophages
  34. Viruses are pathogenic.
    True
  35. The lytic cycle of viral multiplication is a longer cycle than the lysogenic cycle.
    False
  36. If a form of a trait improves chances for surviving and reproducing in a given environment, it is a(n) ________ trait.
    adaptive
  37. The capacity to evolve is based on variations in heritable traits, which originally arise through ______.
    mutations
  38. Which of the following is the most inclusive?
    • ecosystem
    • Biosphere*
    • community
    • population
  39. Animals are all _______.
    • eukaryotic
    • consumers
    • multicelled
  40. The compound most associated with energy transfer in living organisms is _______.
    ATP
  41. A community and its physical and chemical environment constitute _______________.
    an ecosystem
  42. The Archaebacteria and Eubacteria are _________.
    prokaryotic
  43. Inductive logic (reasoning) is a pattern of thinking by which an individual derives a general statement from specific observations.
    True
  44. Organs are composed of tissues, which are composed of cells. This is an example for which characteristic of life?
    Living things are organized.
  45. Which sequence is correct in regards to the different levels of biological organization?
    cells-tissues-organs-organ system-organism
  46. The genus name for human beings is ____________.
    Homo
  47. Which classification category will have the most different types of animals?
    • species
    • genus
    • family
    • Kingdom*
  48. Which sequence of classification categories is in the proper order?
    species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
  49. Which of the following is made up of a combination of the others?
    • atoms*
    • electrons
    • protons
    • neutrons
  50. The negative subatomic particle is the...
    electron
  51. The positive subatomic particle is the...
    proton
  52. The atomic number refers to the...
    number of protons in an atom
  53. The atomic mass of an atom is determined by the number of...
    neutrons and protons
  54. Magnesium has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic mass number of 24. How many electrons are its third energy shell?
    2
  55. How many protons are in an atom of Magnesium?
    12
  56. How many neutrons are in an atom of Magnesium?
    12
  57. What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the first shell of an atom?
    2
  58. Sodium has eleven protons. How many electrons does it have in its outermost shell?
    1
  59. Isotopes are...
    atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
  60. A molecule is...
    a combination of two or more atoms
  61. A compound is...
    a chemical combination of atoms whose proportions do not vary
  62. The chemical symbol for Iodine is...
    I
  63. The chemical symbol for Potassium is...
    K
  64. The chemical symbol for Magnesium is...
    Mg
  65. Which of the following is true of an ion?
    It may be positive or negative
  66. A sharing of electrons between atoms results in which of the following bonds?
    Covalent
  67. A bond formed due to the gain and loss of electrons between atoms is an...
    ionic bond
  68. Which of the following bonds is most easily broken?
    Hydrogen bond
  69. Temperature is...
    the amount of heat given off by an object
  70. Water's capacity to resist rupturing due to the presence of hydrogen bonding is termed...
    Cohesion
  71. Polar substances that dissolve in water are said to be...
    hydrophilic
  72. Water is a...
    polar molecule
  73. Substances with a pH between 0 and 7 are...
    acidic
  74. Substances with a pH between 7 and 14 are...
    basic
  75. pH...
    refers to the hydrogen ion concentration of a substance in solution
  76. Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of...
    buffer systems
  77. How do hydrophobic molecules react with water?
    repelled by it
  78. Characteristics of water:
    • stabilizes temperature
    • good solvent
    • cohesion
    • surface tension
  79. An intermingling of two or more element in proportions that can vary...
    mixture
  80. Any molecule or ion that dissolves in some solvent...
    solute
  81. A splendid tracer used in many research techniques and as cancer destroying therapy...
    radioisotope
  82. A fundamental form of matter that can not be broken down into something different by ordinary means...
    element
  83. pH of Pure water...
    7
  84. pH of Milk of magnesia...
    10
  85. pH of Stomach (gastric) fluid...
    1
  86. pH of Tomatoes...
    4
  87. The bond between the atoms of table salt...
    ionic
  88. The bond type holding several molecules of water together...
    hydrogen
  89. The bond formed between an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of water in which electrons are shared unequally...
    polar covalent
  90. They bond between the hydrogen atoms of hydrogen gas in which electrons are shared equally...
    non-polar covalent
  91. Carbon
    C
  92. Phosphorus
    P
  93. Chlorine
    Cl
  94. Sodium
    Na
  95. A ____ is a unit of matter, which occupies the atomic nucleus and has a mass but no electrical charge.
    neutron
  96. A Chlorine atom has ____ electrons in its outermost shell.
    7
  97. Water-loving substances are termed _____ while water-fearing substances are termed hydrophobic.
    hydrophilic
  98. A solution with a pH of 10 is ____ times as basic as one with a pH of 8.
    20

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