Historical linguistics + socio

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Historical linguistics + socio
2011-05-14 19:16:10

exam review 1
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  1. diachronic
    • looking at language across time; i.e., language change
    • At every level of the grammar  morphological  syntactic  semantic
    •  phonetic/phonological (we know the most about this)
  2. The Uniformitarian Principle
    Phonological changes can account for dialect differences, as well as changes over time
  3. Comparative method
    • To reconstruct what sounds existed in previous forms of a language (or in a “parent” Compile cognate sets, eliminating borrowings (“oddballs”)
    •  Determine sound correspondences
    •  Reconstruct a sound for each position
    •  Reconstruct sound that would have undergone the most natural sound change
    •  If there is more than one rule, determine the rule-ordering
  4. Natural sound changes
    • lenition  Latinamica→Portugueseamiga→Spanishamiga→French
    • amie
    •  assimilation  late Latin octo ‘eight’ → Italian otto
    •  other processes include fortition and dissimilation, vowel deletion and vowel epenthesis (insertion)
    •  also, metathesis (reversal of segments)  Latinpericulum‘danger’→Spanish peligro
  5. Chain Shifts
    • Sometimes one sound changes, and that triggers another sound to change in order to remain distinct
    •  This is called a chain shift  One of the most famous cases of this is the Great Vowel Shift, which affected most of the vowels of English
  6. Great Vowel Shift
    • Early Middle English Vowel Shortening Rule
    • - affected long vowels divine to divinity
  7. Complexities of reconstruction
    • Only the written record
    • -difficult to distinguish similarities due to language contact from similarities due to common ancestry
    • - chance similarities (false cognates)
  8. Why do languages change?
    • -imperfect language learning
    • - social motivations for change
    • -language contact
    • -natural articulatory/perceptual processes
  9. synchronic
    • variations in today's language (dialects)
    • -evidence of language change in progress
  10. sociolinguistics
    • Variation in language - language varies according to region and social factors such as
    •  gender
    •  age
    •  ethnicity
    •  socioeconomic status
  11. stable variation
    • (ing)
    • used frequently by younger people, change will not become dominant and the other usage is not threatened
  12. isogloss
    • a line on a dialect map separating different areas
    • - when several isoglosses coincide it is called an isogloss bundle
  13. phonemic merger
    • two phonemes become one
    • cot-caught
    • pin-pen
  14. William Labov
    • Department store study
    • Upper, middle and lower class and the post-vocalic r
  15. languages in contact
    • languages spoken by bilinguals
    • a community of bilinguals vs bilingual communities
  16. borrowing
    words borrowed by bilinguals from one language to another - content words more likely to be borrowed than function words
  17. codeswitching
    -respects phrase boundaries and grammars of the languages
  18. pidgins and creoles
    • pidgins- a rudimentarylanguage with simple grammatical rules and vocabulary taken from a lexifier language.
    • creole - when pidgin becomes the first language of children
  19. reasons for language shift
    •  “usefulness”  can’t use Garifuna in the stores
    •  marginal status of the language (outsiders)  not taught in schools/too difficult  other children tease in school
    •  lack of self-respect (insiders)  higher status of Belizean Creole
    •  as a sign of “Belizean-ness”