CHAP 5-8 PSYCH

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AGUERRERO27
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CHAP 5-8 PSYCH
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2010-05-01 15:45:46
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CHAPTER 5-8 PSYCH
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  1. Consciousness
    A person's awareness of his or her own existence, sensations, and cognitions
  2. REM Sleep
    Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and marked brain activity.
  3. Activation-synthesis Hypothesis
    The theory that dreams arise from random bursts of nerve cell activity, which may affect brain cells involved with hearing and seeing. The brain attempts to make sense of this hodgepodge of stimuli resulting in the experience of dreams.
  4. Circadian Rhythm
    The body's daily fluctuations in response to the cycle of dark and light, which occur with blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, blood sugar level, hormone levels and metabolism
  5. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
    A small part of the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm that registers changes in light, leading to the production of hormones which regulate bodily functions.
  6. Night Terrors
    Vivid and frightening experiences while sleeping. The sleeper might appear to be awake during the experience but has no memory of it the following day.
  7. Nightmare
    A dream with strong negative emotion
  8. Narcolepsy
    Sudden attacks of extreme drowsiness. Once asleep people with narcolepsy enter into REM sleep almost immediately.
  9. Insomnia
    Repeated difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or waking up too early.
  10. Sleep Apnea
    A disorder characterized by a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep, usually preceded by a period of difficult breathing accompanied by loud snoring.
  11. As you descend into deep sleep, what happens to the patterns of your Brain Waves?
    The amplitudes increase and the frequencies becomes slower
  12. Hypnosis
    A state of mind characterized by a focused awareness on vivid, imagined experiences and decreasedawareness of the external environment
  13. Hypnotic induction
    the procedure used to attain a hypnotic trance state
  14. Trance state
    a hypnotically induced altered state of consciousness in which awareness of the external environment is diminished.
  15. Trance logic
    an uncritical acceptance of incongrous, illogical events during a hypnotic trance
  16. Posthypnotic suggestion
    a suggestion regarding a change in perception, mood, or behavior that will occur after leavingthe hypnotic state.
  17. absorption
    the capacity to concentrate totally on external material.
  18. trance theory
    the view that a person in a trance experiences an altered, dissociated state of consciousness characterizedby increasing susceptibility and responsiveness to suggestions.
  19. sociocogniitve theory
    the view that a person in a trance voluntarily enacts the role of a hypnotized person as he orshe understands it, which leads to behaviors and experiences believed to be produced by hypnosis.
  20. Meditation
    an altered state of consciousness characterized by a sense of deep relaxation and loss ofself-awareness
  21. concentrative meditation
    a form of meditation in which the meditator restricts attention and concentrates on one stimulus whiledisregarding everything else
  22. opening-up meditation
    a form of meditation in which the mediator focuses on a stimulus but also broadens that focus toencompass the whole of his/her surroundings
  23. mindfulness meditation
    a combination of concentrative and opening-up meditation in which the meditator focuses on whatever ismost prominent at the moment..
  24. Substance Abuse
    drug or alcohol use that causes distress or trouble with functioning in major areas of life, occurs in dangerous situations, or leads to legal difficulties
  25. Disinhibition
    the inhibiton of inhibitory neurons, which makes other neurons more likely to fire and which usually occurs as a result of depressant use.
  26. Inhibitory Conflict
    an internal response when a behavior is both strongly instigated and inhibited.
  27. Alchohol Myopia
    the disproportionate influence of immediate experience on behavior and emotion due to the effects ofalchohol use.
  28. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    An originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through pairings with an unconditionedstimulus (US).
  29. Conditional Response(CR)
    A response that depends or is conditional on pairings of the conditioned stimulus with an unconditional stimulus, once learned, the conditioned response occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone.
  30. Trace conditioning
    a type of forward classical conditioning where the presentation of the CS ends before the presentation of the US begins.
  31. Habituation
    the learning that occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus decreases an organisms responsiveness to thestimulus.
  32. Conditioned emotional response (CER)
    An emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus.
  33. Operant conditioning
    the process by which a behavior becomes associated with its consequences
  34. Law of Effect
    Actions that subsequently lead to a "satisfying state of affairs" are more likely to be repeated.
  35. Reinforcement
    the process by which consequences lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again.
  36. Response contingency
    the relationship that occurs when a consequence is dependent on the organisms emittting the desiredbehavior.
  37. Reinforcer
    An object or event that comes after a response and that changes the likelihood of its recurrence.
  38. Positive reinforcement
    occurs when a desired reinforcer is presented after a behavior, thereby increasing the likelihood of arecurrence of that behavior.
  39. Negative reinforcement
    occurs when an unpleasant event or circumstance that follows a behavior is removed, thereby increasingthe likelihood of a reccuence of the behavior
  40. Positive punishment
    occurs when a behavior leads to an undesired consequence, thereby decreasing the likelihood of a recurrence of that behavior.
  41. Negative punishment
    occurs when a behavior leads to the removal of a pleasant event or circumstance, thereby decreasingthe likelihood of a recurrence of the behavior
  42. Primary reinforcer
    An event or object such as food, water, or relief from pain, that is inherently reinforcing.
  43. Secondary reinforcer
    an event or object, such as attention, praise, money, a good grade, or a promotion, that is reinforcingbut that doesnt inherently satisfy a physical need.
  44. Behavior modification
    A technique that brings about therapeutic change in behavior through the use of secondaryreinforcers.
  45. Generalization
    the ability to emit a learned behavior in response to a similar situation.
  46. Shaping
    the gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer to the desired behavior.
  47. Cognitive learning
    the acquisition of information that often is not immediately acted on but is stored for later use.
  48. Latent learning
    learning that occurs without behavioral signs.
  49. Insight learning
    learning that occurs when a person or animal suddenly grasps what something meansand incorporates that new knowledge into old knowledge.
  50. Observational learning
    learning that occurs through watching others, not through reinforcement.
  51. long term potentiation
    A receiving neurons increased sensitivity to input from a sending neuron, resulting from previousactivation.
  52. Recall
    the act of intentionally bringing explicit information to awareness, which requires transferring the information fromLTM to STM.
  53. Recognition
    the act of encoding an input and matching it to a stored representation.
  54. Encoding specficity principle
    the idea that memory is better when people are given cues that were present duringlearning.
  55. hypermnesia
    memory that improves over time without feedback, particularly with repeated attempts to recall.
  56. Interference
    the disruption of the ability to remember one piece of info by the presence of other info.
  57. Encoding
    process of organizing and transforming incoming information so that it can be entered into memory.
  58. Storage
    process of retaining information in memory
  59. Retrieval
    process of digging information out of memory.
  60. Memory store
    a set of neurons that serves to retain information over time.
  61. Sensory memory
    A memory store that holds a large amount of perceptual input for a very brief time, typically less than 1 second
  62. Short-term memory
    a memory store that holds relatively litle information for only a few seconds.
  63. Chunk
    A unit of information, such as a digit, letter or word.
  64. Working memory
    The system that includes two specialized STMs and a central executive that operates on information in themto plan, reason, or solve a problem
  65. Long-term memory
    - a memory store that holds a huge amount of information for a long time (from hours to years)
  66. Stroop effect
    When the name of a color (e.g., "blue," "green," or "red") is printed in a color not denoted by the name (e.g., the word "red" printed in blue ink instead of red ink), naming the color of the word takes longer and is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color
  67. serial position effect
    having superior memory for the items at the beginning and the end of a list.
  68. Primacy effect
    increased memory for the first few stimulu in a set.
  69. Recency effect
    increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set.
  70. Code
    A type of mental representation, an internal "re-presentation" of a stimulus or event
  71. Consolidation
    The process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain
  72. depth of processing
    the number and complexity of the operations involved in processing information, expressed in a continuum from shallow to deep.
  73. flashbulb memory
    An usually vivid and accurate memory of a dramatic event.
  74. transfer appropriate processing
    - processing used to retrieve material that is the same type as was used when it wasorginally studied, which improves memory retrieval.
  75. Breadth of processing
    processing that organizes and integrates information into previously stored information,often by making associations.
  76. Elaborative encoding
    encoding that involves great breadth of processing.
  77. modality-specific memory stores
    memory stores that retain input from a single sense, such as vision or audition, orfrom a specific processing system, such as language.
  78. Semantic memories:
    memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world.
  79. episodic memories
    memories of events that are associated with a particular context- a time, place, and circumstance
  80. explicit (or declarative) memories
    :memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM
  81. Implicit(or nondeclarative) memories
    Involuntary memories thats influence behavioror thinking.
  82. Priming
    the result of having just performed a task that facilitates repeating the same or an associated task.

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