The process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors
Developed a classification system for all organisms known at that time. Proposed that organisms could have arisen through hybridization.
Species shared ancestors instead of arising separately. Rejected idea that earth was only 6,000 years old.
All living things were descended from a common ancestor and complex forms of life came from simpler forms of life.
Organisms evolved towards perfection and complexity. Species must have evolved into different forms instead of becoming extinct. Changes in an environment caused an organisms behavior to change, causing disuse of structures. Giraffes.
Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can reproduce and have fertile offspring
Traces of organisms that existed in the past. Cuvier
Natural disasters such as floods and volcanic eruptions have happened often during Earth's long history. Cuvier
Changes in landforms resulted from slow changes over a long period of time. Hutton
Geological processes that shape Earth are uniform through time.
Difference in physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals in the group that it belongs.
A feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
The process by which humans change a species by breeding it for certain traits
The ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next
A mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals.
All the individuals of a species that live in an area
Four main principles of natural selection
Descent with modification (same traits in population)
The measure of the ability to survive and produce more offspring relative to the other members of the population in a given environment
The study of the distribution of organisms around the world
Features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functions.
Structures that perform a similar function but are not similar in origin.
Remnants of organs or structures that had a function in an early ancestor.
The study of fossils or extinct organisms that continues to provide new information and support current hypothesis about how evolution occurs
Genes that control the development of specific structures. Found in almost every organism, suggest a common ancestry
sequences of DNA nucleotides that no longer function but are still carried along. They can change as they are passed down through generations.
cells from different species that have the same proteins most likely come from a common ancestor.
Occurs when members of different populations can no longer mate succesfully with one another.
The rise of two or more species from one existing species
Isolation caused by differences in courtship or mating behaviours
Involves physical barriers that divide a population into two or more groups.
Exists when timing prevents reproduction between populations
Evolution towards similar characteristics in unrelated species
When closely related species evolve in different directions
the process in which two or more species evolve in response to changes in eachother
The elimination of a species from Earth
Episodes of speciation occur suddenly in geological time and are followed by long periods of little evolutionary change
The diversification of one ancestral species into many descendent species