BIOL230 Test 3 Immunity

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jswareham
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85852
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BIOL230 Test 3 Immunity
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2011-05-15 22:41:58
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Specific Immunity Antigen antibody immunoglobulin T4 T8
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CCBC BIOL230 Dr. Jeffrey Test 3 subject: Specific Immunity
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  1. Define antigen (AGN).
    Any substance foreign to the circulation (blood or lymph nodes) of the body that stimulates production of antibodies by the immune system.
  2. Define antibody (ABY).
    A protein, produced by the Immune System (IS) in response to a specific AGN
  3. Define epitope.
    Chemical part of AGN which reacts with a specific ABY.
  4. What is the term for when ABY's attach to the epitope of AGN's and form clumps of AGN-ABY?
    Agglutination
  5. What are the 2 purposes of agglutination?
    • Localizes AGN - stops AGN from spreading
    • The ABY helps phagocytes recognize the foreign AGN
  6. What are the 5 types of ABY's?
    • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
    • Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
    • Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
    • Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
    • Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
  7. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
    1. % of ABY's?
    2. When is it produced?
    3. Cross placenta?
    • 1. 80%
    • 2. Secondary exposure
    • 3. yes
  8. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
    1. % of ABY's?
    2. When is it produced?
    3. Cross placenta?
    • 1. 6-8%
    • 2. Primary exposure
    • 3. no
    • (5 IgG's attached at Fc end)
  9. Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
    1. % of ABY's?
    2. When is it produced?
    3. Cross placenta?
    • 1. 10-13%
    • 2. Secondary and late primary exposure
    • 3. yes
    • (2 IgG's attached at Fc end, secretion Ig, provides immunity to newborn)
  10. Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
    1. % of ABY's?
    2. When is it produced?
    3. Cross placenta?
    • 1. 1%
    • 2. Secondary exposure
    • 3. yes
    • (Memory ABY; When the body making IgD's the Fab end attaches to the epitope and the Fc end attaches to a B-lymphocyte and is retained as a reminder of how to make more ABY's)
  11. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
    1. % of ABY's?
    2. When is it produced?
    3. Cross placenta?
    • 1. 1-3%
    • 2. Secondary exposure
    • 3. yes
    • Fc end if IgE attaches to a Natural Killer (NK) white blood cell that releases digestive enzymes that breakdown large AGN's
  12. IgA is the secretion ABY, what secretions is it found in?
    • Urine
    • genital secretions
    • breast milk
    • nasal secretions
    • tears
    • saliva
    • colostrum
    • spinal fluid
  13. How are ABY's made?
    Undifferentiated neonatal stem cells differentiate into either B or T lymphocytes starting the 1 month after birth.
  14. What stimulates neonatal stem cells to differentiate into T-cells?
    • The thymus gland.
    • *the thymus is active for only 1 month after birth, and is complete degenerated by puberty.
  15. What stimulates neonatal stem cells to differentiate into B-cells?
    Gut Associated Lymph Tissue (GALT)
  16. List 7 ways ABY protect against infection.
    • Agglutination
    • Precipitation
    • Anti-viral ABY
    • Anti-toxin ABY
    • Anti-pili ABY
    • Cytolysis
    • Opsonization
  17. How does agglutination work?
    When specific ABY's clump to an AGN in tissue to localize AGN and help phagocytosis.
  18. How does precipitation work related to immunity?
    When specific ABY's (IgA) clump to an AGN in secretions to localize AGN and help phagocytosis.
  19. How do anti-viral neutralizing ABY's work?
    ABY attaches to and covers protein head of virus preventing viral adsorption to host cells.
  20. How do anti-toxin ABY's work?
    ABY made against exotoxins changing the structure of the exotoxin protein, rendering it non-harmful.
  21. How do anti-pili ABY's work?
    ABY (IgA) made against bacterial pili. ABY attaches to bacterial pili, preventing attachment to host cell.
  22. Explain the process of Cytolysis (IgG and Complement).
    • Fab end of IgG attaches to the epitope of G-
    • bacterial AGN in the blood.
    • The Complement subunits (which are free flowing in the blood serum) attach to the Fc end of IgG, and once complete is called Whole Compliment.
    • Whole Complement will cause damage to cell wall, bacteria bursts and dies.
    • Released endotoxin may cause harm.
  23. What is Complement?
    Complement is a complex serum protein consisting of 11 major subunits (C1Q, C1R, C1S, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9)
  24. Explain the process of Opsonization (IgG and Complement).
    • IgG and certain subunits of Complement (C3B for example) help to destroy bacteria with capsules.
    • ABY (IgG) attaches to capsule of bacteria
    • C3B attaches to Fc end of IgG, creating a link that allows phagocytosis by WBC
  25. List the 4 types of ABY immunity.
    • Passive natural
    • Passive artificial
    • Active natural
    • Active artificial
  26. Describe passive natural immunity.
    • Short term immunity, usually less then 1 year, ABY is given not made.
    • Maternal ABY's passed to baby through the placenta and breast milk.
  27. Describe passive artificial immunity.
    • Short term immunity, usually less then 1 year, ABY is given not made.
    • ABY given post exposure to AGN in a life threatening situation.
  28. Describe active natural immunity.
    • Long term immunity, lasts for years, individual makes own ABY's.
    • ABY's are made after infection and recovery to AGN.
  29. Describe active artificial immunity.
    • Long term immunity, lasts for years, individual makes own ABY's.
    • Vaccinations (immunizations), you're given an altered form of AGN or epitope to stimulate ABY production.
  30. List 5 things vaccines could consist of.
    • Dead AGN organism (boiled, formaldehyde, mercury)
    • Attenuated AGN organism (weakened state)
    • Non-virulent strain of AGN
    • Toxoid - altered toxin
    • Epitope
  31. List 4 common vaccines.
    • DPT (Diphtheria - toxoid, Pertussis - epitope, Tetanus - toxoid)
    • MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella - all attenuated viruses)
    • Polio TOPV vaccine - attenuated, non-paralytic Polio virus
    • Haemeophilis influenza Type B (HiB) vaccine -attenuated bacteria
  32. Many state require these 4 vaccines in addition to the common vaccines.
    • Hepatitis B
    • Pneumococcal pneumonia
    • Chicken Pox
    • Rotavirus
    • *Recommended - flu shot, Gardasil (HPV)
  33. Breifly describe the process of Humoral Immunity.
    • AGN is introduced
    • AGN is picked up by a type of T-lymphocyte called a T-helper cell.
    • The T-helper cell processes the AGN and exposes the epitope surface of AGN.
    • The epitope is transferred to the surface of a B-lymphocyte.
    • The B-lymphocyte becomes a plasma cell.
    • The plasma cell produces the ABY for that particular AGN.
  34. Breifly describe the process of Exogenous Cellular Immunity. (hint: T4 cell)
    • Foreign exogenous AGN is introduced into the body
    • AGN is "met" by an AGN Presenting Cell (APC), usually a macrophage, APC attached to AGN, APC transfers epitope to surface of a T4-lymphocyte
    • Epitope attaches to a protein called a T-Cell Receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T4 cell.
    • T4 cell with attached epitope is now an activated T4 cell
    • The activated T4 cell can either become a T-helper 1 (Th1) or a T-helper 2 (Th2) cell
    • Th1 cell produces immune chemicals called lymphokines and cytokines
    • Th2 carries epitope to a B-lymphocyte.
    • Th2 transfers epitope to the surface of the B-lymphocyte.
    • Epitope attaches to a protein called SIg on B-lymphocyte (SIg = Surface Immunoglobulin), and produces ABY
  35. Breifly describe the process of Endgenous Cellular Immunity. (hint: T8 cell)
    • Foreign endogenous AGN is introduced into the body
    • AGN is "met" by an AGN Presenting Cell (APC), usually a macrophage, APC attached to AGN, APC transfers epitope to surface of a T8-lymphocyte
    • Epitope attaches to a protein called a T-Cell Receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T8
    • cell.
    • T8 cell with attached epitope is now an activated T8 cell
    • The activated T8 cell can either become a T-helper 1 (Th1), a T-helper 2 (Th2), a
    • Cytotoxin-T-lymphocyte (CTL), T-memory, or T-suppressor cell cell
    • Th1 cell produces immune chemicals called lymphokines and cytokines
    • Th2 carries epitope to a B-lymphocyte.
    • Th2 transfers epitope to the surface of the B-lymphocyte.
    • Epitope attaches to a protein called SIg on B-lymphocyte (SIg = Surface Immunoglobulin), and produces ABY
    • CTL - aggressive phagocyte that can attack cancer cells.
    • T-memory cell; retains epitope as a reminder.
    • T-suppressor cell; stops action of all T-lymphocytes
    • (see Exogenous Cellular Immunity for Th1 and Th2 cells)

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