Microbiology parasites

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Jenmom2grls
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85854
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Microbiology parasites
Updated:
2011-05-15 00:08:52
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microbiology
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Microbiology Final
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  1. Protozoa
    • Kingdom Protista
    • unicellular, eukaryotes
    • 4 subphyla based on locomotion
    • most have 2 forms in their life cycle
    • trophozoite (vegetative) moving
    • cyst (resistant) resting
  2. 4 Subphyla based on locomotion:
    • Sarcodina- amoeboid movement
    • Ciliophora- move by cilia
    • Mastigophora- move by flagella
    • Sporozoa- non-motile
  3. Sarcodina
    • Amoeboid movement
    • move by cytoplasmic protrusions called pseudopodia
    • 1. Entamoeba histolytica
  4. Entamoeba histolytica
    • Sarcodina
    • Lg. intestine
    • Feeds on RBCs
    • Produces ulcerative lesions, may spread to other organs
    • amoebiasis (amoebic dysentary)
    • -bloody diarrhea
    • Fecal/oral, contaminated food/H20
    • Dx: Ova & Parasites- stool
    • Tx: Flagyl
  5. Mastigophora
    • pear-shaped
    • move by flagella, 2-8 depending on species
    • 2 groups
    • -intestinal flagellates
    • -hemoflagellattes
  6. Intestinal flagellates
    • live on intestinal or other mucosal surfaces
    • 1. Giardia intestinalis
    • 2. Trichomonas vaginalis
  7. Giardia intestinalis
    • lamblia
    • mastigophora, intestinal
    • most common in US
    • diarrhea, dehydration, flatulence
    • troph-motile
    • -pear-shaped
    • -sucking disc
    • -pair of nucleii-look like eyes
    • -several pairs of flagella
    • cyst-non motile
    • -oval
    • -4 nucleii
    • -axostyles
    • Reproduce in upper sm. intestine- doesn't invade tissue
    • trans:
    • -fecal/oral, contaminated water
    • -person to person, daycare centers
    • -deer, bear, beaver feces "Beaver fever"
    • Dx: O&P, blood test for antibodies, string test
    • Tx: Flagyl or Ciproflaxacin
  8. Trichomonas vaginalis
    • "trich"
    • men-urethral surfaces, prostate, seminal vesicles
    • -asymptomatic
    • women-genital mucosa
    • -vaginitis
    • -urinary probles
    • -itchy foamy discharge
    • trans:STD or fomites
    • Dx: wet prep of vag. secretions, microscopic urine
    • No cyst form
    • troph
    • -1 nucleus
    • -2-8 flagella
    • -undulating membrane
    • -aids in locomotion
    • Tx: Flagyl partners too
  9. Hemoflagellates
    • mastigophora
    • live in bloodstream or parasitic tissue
    • transmitted by biting insects
    • 1. Leishmania
  10. Leishmania
    • hemoflagellate
    • mastigophora
    • sandfly bite
    • infects WBCs, fever, anemia
    • Cutaneous, "Baghdad Boil"
  11. Sporozoa
    • Non-motile protozoa
    • 1. Plsmodium
    • 2. Toxoplasma gondii
  12. Plasmodium
    • Malaria
    • fever, chills, fatigue, liver damage
    • P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. falciparum (all cause malaria)
    • Anopheles mosquito
    • Dx: see infected RBCs in blood smears called ring form
    • Tx: Quinine drugs, Chloroquin, Mefloquine, maralrone, doxycyline
  13. Toxoplasma gondii
    • toxoplasmosis
    • mild, self-limiting (asymptomatic)
    • severe congenital defects in infants
    • brain infection in AIDS
    • Trans: cat, cow, sheep (birds and rodents carry), contact with cat feces or undercooked beek or lamb
    • Dx: toxoplasma antibodies-blood test
    • Tx: none, mild
  14. Cryptosporidium
    • Opportunistic sporozoa
    • Cryptosporidiosis
    • -infects intestinal lining
    • -normal -limited diarrhea 1-2 weeks
    • AIDS and immunocompromised patients
    • profuse diarrhea, severe, irreversible dehydration, death
    • Trans: fecal/oral, contaminated water
    • - Milwaukee, Door county wells- resists chlorine treatment
    • Dx: FA smear-feces
    • Tx: none
  15. Parasitic worms
    • Helminths- Greek "to roll"
    • large: adult forms can see with naked eye
    • ova, larva are microscopic
    • 2 groups
    • -roundworms (nemtodes)
    • -flatworms (cestodes-tapeworm, trematodes-flukes)
  16. Roundworms
    • Nematodes
    • sea, freshwater, soil
    • polar to tropics
    • they parasitize every type of animal and plant, causing economic damage and serious disease
    • bodies not segmented, but pointed at ends
    • have complete digestive, excretory and nervous system
    • separate sexes
    • female is larger and produce eggs constantly 200,000/day
    • hookwoams have hooks or cutting devices for attachment to intestinal wall
    • 1. Nectur americanus
    • 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
    • 3. Trichinella spiralis
    • 4. Enterobius vermicularis
  17. Necatur americanus
    • American hookworm
    • roundworm
    • Trans: larvae penetrate exposed skin, then to circulatory system
    • Prevention: sanitation of human waste so parasite won't continue in soil, wear shoes
    • Lifecycle: Foot>blood>lungs>cough/swallow>sm. intestines/lay eggs>eggs leave in fecal material
    • Disease: severe anemia
    • -a single worm can remove .1ml blood/day
    • -usually involve mn worms-1000s
    • Tx: Vermox
    • Dx: eggs in O&P
  18. Ascaris lumbricoides
    • roundworm (Nematodes)
    • largest of roundworms
    • Trans: ingest eggs>lungs>cough/swallow>digestive tract
    • Disease: severe pneumonitis (cough, asthmatic breathing), diarrhea, vomiting, abd. pain
    • Tx: Vermox
    • Dx: Ascaris eggs in O&P
  19. Trichinella spiralis
    • roundworm
    • trichinosis
    • Trans:undercooked pork or bear
    • Lifecycle: eat>gastric juices free larva from cyst>duodenum>female worm burrow in lymph nodes/lay larvae>larv in lymph and blood>larva lodge in striated muscle tissue "encystment">cycle stops unless eaten
    • Disease: muscles, diaphragm, thoracic, abd. walls, tongue, bicps, heart
    • -severity depend on # of larvae
    • -mild infection: GI discomfort, muscle pain, chills, weakness, increase eosinophils
    • -severe infection: respiratory distress, heart involvement, death
    • Dx: muscle biopsy
    • -skin test
    • -WBCs-look for eosinophils
    • Tx: Thiabendazole
    • -destroys larvae after muscle penetration
  20. Enterobius vermicularis
    • "pinworms"
    • smallest parasitic roundworm
    • most common helminth
    • highest rate among children
    • Trans: ova on perinal skin of inf. person
    • -direct or indirect transfer via clothing, bedding, toys, food
    • Lifecycle: eat>intestinal tract/hatch/develop>after copulation>female to anal region>1000s of eggs>eggs out fecal matter
    • Disease: anal scratching, itching, restlessness, insomnia
    • -usually children
    • Dx: scotch tape or pinworm paddle pressed against perianal skin
    • -exam for ova (flattenend on one side)
    • -sometimes adult on skin and feces
    • -white forms
    • -O&P not good
    • Tx: Vermox, piperazine

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