compounds composed of carbon, dydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms, arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. Some amino acids also contain sulfur atoms.
building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom and a distinctive side group, all attached to a central carbon atom.
Nonessential Amino Acids
amino acids that the body can synthesize.
Essential Amino Acids
amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs.
Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
An amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.
a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
two amino acids bonded together. Di=two Peptide=amino acid
Three amino acids bonded together.
Many (ten or more) amino acids bonded together. Poly=many
the gobular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body.
the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid , base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. Pepsin is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogenm which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
enzymes that hydrolyze protein.
a digestive enzyme that hydorlyzes peptide bonds. Tripeptidases cleave tripeptides, dipeptidases cleave dipeptides. Endopeptidases cleave peptide bonds within the chain to create smaller fragments, wheras exopeptidases cleave bonds at the ends to release free amino acids.
Sickle Cell Anemia
hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormal sickle or crescent shaped red blood cells. Sickled cells interfere with oxygen transport and blood flow. Symptoms are precipitated by deydration and insufficient oxygen ( as may occur at high altitudes) and include hemolytic anemia (red blood cells burst), fever, and severe pain in the joints and abdomen.
the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein.
the basic substance that gives form to a developing structure, in the body, the formative cells from which teeth and bones grow.
the protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.
Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process, protein catalysts.
maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids.
the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces, seen in protein deficeincy among other conditions.
compounds that release dydrogen ions in a solution
compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution
above normal acidity in the blood and body fluids.
above normal alkalinity base in the blood and body fluids.
substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system. A bacterium, a virus, a toxin, and a protein in food that cuases allergy are all examples of antigens.
large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produces by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules usually proteins called antigens. Antibodies combine with and inactivate the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body.
the body's ability to defend itself against diseases.
the degradation and synthesis of protein.
Amino Acid Pool
the supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins of body proteins that collect in the cells and circulating blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy.
the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amoundt of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time.
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. They diffuse across the gap to the next cell and alter the membrane of that second cell to either inhibit or excite it.
removal of the amino NH2 group from a compound such as an amino acid.
High Quality Proteins
dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
a measure of the amoundt of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intake.
Limiting Amino Acid
the essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body. Four amino acids are most likely to be limiting. Lysine, Methionine, Theronin, Tryptophan.
a standard against which to measure the quality of other proteins.
two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other.
Protein Energy malnutrition or Protein kcalorie malnutrition
PEM, PCM- a deficiency of protein, energy, or both including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and instances in which they overlap.
Protein energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restrition, characterized in children by thinness for height( wasting)
Protein energy malnutrition caused by long term food deprivation, characterized in children by short height for age. (stunting)
a form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation or impaired absorption, of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals.
a form of PEM that results either from inadequate protein intake or more commonly from infections
an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea.
a by product of cheese production, falsely promoted as increasing musle mass. Whey is the watery part of the milk that spearates from the curds.
Branched chain amino acids.
the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, whicha re present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue, falsely promoted as fuel for exercising muscles.