Microbiology 1

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Author:
chiroclown
ID:
85874
Filename:
Microbiology 1
Updated:
2011-05-15 10:17:05
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Final Micro
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Final for Micro 1
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  1. Surface Area/Volume
    L2/L3
    about 1.2
  2. Human Cell Rate of Division
    25 x 1012 cells
  3. um
    micrometer
  4. Nf=Ni x 2n
    Growth Curve Equation
  5. n in growth curve equation
    hours/ division rate
  6. Bacteria width
    1-15 um
  7. No Lag Phase
    Thermodynamically working at maxiumum speed
  8. Open system
    Keep supplying substrates and you will keep getting a product
  9. Creating beer
    • closed system
    • Finite amount of product from substrate
  10. Viruses
    • RNA or DNA
    • Protein Receptors
    • Indogenous- influences outcome of product/ cell
  11. Sublicnical
    lag
  12. Koch Postulate
    • 1) take organisms from person and isolate
    • 2) Identify isolated organism
    • 3) test organism in anamal
    • 4) isolate in animal and observe reaction
  13. Amino Acid
    NH2 and CoohR group
  14. Pentamere Proteins
    Particular shape and distance- spaces are crucial
  15. Receptor Pads
    • Proteins
    • Geometric shapes looking for each other
    • Tx attempts to hide receptor sites
  16. Enzymes
    • Catalysts
    • Proteins
    • Organism w/ dramatically effective enzymes= rapid cell copying
    • Can break peptide bonds
  17. HeLa's Cells
    • One of the oldest and most commonly used human cell lines
    • Can divide an unlimited number of times in a laboratory cell culture
    • plate as long as fundamental cell survival conditions are met (i.e.
    • being maintained and sustained in a suitable environment)
  18. Cells from tissue of any kind will grow out to 1 layer thick.
  19. Serology Test
    • Must have either Antogens or Antibodies
    • Must end up with a genus species and type to determmine Tx
  20. Procaryote
    • Simple
    • Anaerobic
    • Cytoplast
    • Ribosom
    • Durable cell wall
    • DNA
    • 3.5 x 109
  21. Eucaryote
    • Complex
    • Aerobic
    • 2 x 109
  22. All cells still remember how to do anaerobic work.
  23. Bacteria can function anaerobicly
  24. RBC
    • Aerobic Only
    • simple cell
    • 2 ATP's per RBC
    • Last 120 days
    • Non replicating cell
  25. Cells are independent
    multiple substrates with multiple products
  26. Organells
    • multi-cellular organisms
    • Mitochondria
    • Nuclear material/ nucleus
    • Ribosomes
  27. Glucosis
    All cells do this
  28. ATP
    • Atenotriphosphate
    • Energy/ currency created from glucosis
    • Potential to do work- Cell division
  29. Delta G
    Potential free energy in glucose
  30. To kill cells in large numbers-
    Target enzymes in metabolic state
  31. Viruses only use somebody else's metabolism
  32. Sterilization
    No other organisms on it or in it
  33. Invagination
    • Increases surface area and cell works easier
    • SA must be greater than V to move goods in and out
  34. Pilus
    Extension out of cell
  35. Gram-negative
    More Lipids
  36. Lipid
    • non polar molecules
    • readily avaible charge to remove lipid- nonpolar solvent
  37. Blood Agar Plates
    • Enriched
    • 7% Sheep RBC
  38. Alcohol in Gram Stain
    Gram-negative lose color with alcohol
  39. TB stain
    Acid Fast Stain
  40. Ni
    • A- Start
    • Get bugs
  41. Nf
    B- Log
  42. e
    Tx
  43. f
    recovery
  44. Anti Microbials
    Family of compounds aimed at all micro organisms
  45. Antibiotic
    • Attacks bacteria
    • Determine up and down sides
    • have to be careful of giving too much, etc.
  46. Amino acids with peptide bonds
  47. Volume divides and surface area increases
  48. Penicillan
    • Attacks wall
    • Cell division continues but wall does not form- defective
  49. Chemotherapy
    Looking for enzymes to shut down
  50. Half Life
    • Everything has a half Life
    • How long until all subtructures are gone?
    • Isotope loses core energy and nucleus decay/ change
  51. Compartment Model
    • 1) Input
    • 2) Blood
    • 3) Target
    • 4) Storage (parking- not getting where it needs to be)
    • 5) Liver
    • 6) Kidney (out)
  52. Ethylene Oxide
    Gas used to clean surfaces that cannot be aoutocaved
  53. Entropy and cells
    • Bacteria gives off disorder but cells are benefactors of environment.
    • Cells are getting organized inside inspite of environment
  54. When you die you slowly reach equilibrium. When cell is alive, you are NOT in equilibrium.
  55. AT
    GC
  56. Transduction Requires Virus
  57. Conjucation doesn't require virus
  58. RFactor
    Resistance markers agains antibiotics
  59. RNA
    • Single Strand
    • Translation from DNA
  60. Pyrogens
    Temperature/ Fever- creatin of pyrogens
  61. Nucleic Acid
    Creates the exact same virus with protecant. If anything goes wrong, virus may not replicate
  62. RNA Viruses
    • Oncogenic viruses enter cells and try to duplicate themselves and turn things on and off.
    • 120 RNA viruses
  63. N in influenza Virus
    • Neuromindase
    • Antogen
    • Protein Enzyme
  64. H in Influenza Virus
    • Hemoglutenin
    • Structural
    • Antogen
  65. 20 Amino Acids in proteins for humans
  66. 1012-1014 variations of amino acids and thus a blizzard of antigens
  67. Genetic Drift
    Less significant
  68. Genetic Shift
    More significant
  69. Herd Immunity minimum
    70%
  70. H antigen hooks up with my protein. My protein envaginates my membrane and is Endo
    Antiviral interupts the entrance of virus to cell or build up of IGM/ IGG antibodies attack and kick out
  71. Existene of antigen or antibody (serology) means exposure to virus has happened.
  72. Cells that accomodate a virus allows replication
  73. Interferon
    • Antiviral
    • Drops cell reproduction
  74. Examples of shifted viruses
    • HIV
    • Measles
    • Small Pox
    • Virus accomodates human protein and thus shifts
  75. Examples of Drifting viruses
    • Ebola
    • HIV
    • genetic variations continue
  76. RNA-DNA-DNAds
  77. Protinase
    packaging
  78. Vaccine Types
    • 1) Live but attenuated
    • 2) Kill with chemical heat
    • 3) Subunits
    • 4) Homologus
    • 5) Recombinent
    • 6) Atigens in food
  79. Live but attenuated
    • Wild type reversions possible
    • Pipet onto eggs and grown
    • multiple strands create a vaccine
  80. Kill with chemical heat
    Shut down key enzymes but don't alter proteins/ antigenicity
  81. Subunits
    Make antibodies out of cell subunits
  82. Homologus
    • Clonal receptor sites
    • sees virus and increases copies of enzymes and BCells
    • Vaccines encourage T & B Cells to duplicate virus attack
  83. T-Cells
    Makes chemicals
  84. B Cells
    Antibodies Igm, Imm
  85. Rcombinent Vaccines
    • Take RNA out of virus and replace with similar RNA
    • RNA becomes antogen and cell tissue would then constantly make antogens
  86. Criteria for successful vaccine
    • 1) Cost (less than $1)
    • 2) Transport (temperature plays a role)
    • 3) Low side effects
    • 4) Efficatious
    • 5) ROI ($1 spent- $9 save)
  87. DNA viruses are stable
    Edits/ corrects quickly
  88. RNA are less stable- more suseptable to shift
    cannot correct quickly
  89. Drift/ Shift
    • 1) DNAds undergoes editing (looking for errors to fix)
    • 2) DNAds transcribes to RNA
    • 3) RNA translates to proteins
  90. HIV
    Endocytocis to CD4
  91. AZT
    • Affects packaging
    • T interferes
    • Analog for Thymine- pyschs out cell
  92. Protease inhibitor
    Declines and saves # of CD 4 and reduces opportunity to pass HIV to others
  93. AZT & PI create an RNA drift
    Could stop working if too much drift occurs
  94. CD4
    Lymphosite w/ unique receptor site that allows HIV to be pulled in
  95. Sewage
    • 24% organics
    • 98% H2O
  96. 1st Step
    • Anaerobic
    • Makes Gases
    • H2S, CO2, CH4, NH3
    • BOD High
  97. BOD
    Biological Oxyen Demand
  98. Stage 2
    • Aerobic
    • lower BOD
  99. Stage 3
    lowest BOD
  100. Alum is settling material in holding tank
  101. Cl-
    • Chlorine
    • .25-.7 parts/ million
    • Kills most bacteria pathogens and some viruses
    • Coliform baceria
  102. Reverse Osmosis
    • Semi permeable membrane
    • Salt and water
  103. Contamination
    • Bacteria- organic
    • Viruses- organic
    • Parasites- organic
    • Chemicals- Reverse osmosis
  104. Food is contaminated from H20

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