Earth Science Meteorology and Climate
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Meteorolgy is the study of ____________.
What tool measures air pressure?
One atmospheree of pressure is 29.92"Hg or 1013.2 mb. What does the mb stand for?
Just like contour lines, what lines show the pressure gradients on a weather map?
What bars show equal temperatures on a map?
To convert air pressure, __________.
put a 10 in front of the numbers if its first number is 0-4, and then put a decimal between the first and last digit. Put a 9 in front of the numbers if the first number is 5-9.
Why is air pressure affected by temperature?
- Warm air is less dense and rises. Therefore, there is less pressure on the barometer and the pressure is low.
- Cold air is more dense and sinks. When the air is sinking, it puts more pressure on the barometer an the pressure is high.
Why is air pressure affected by altitude?
Theree is less air as you go up. This leads to a lower pressure
Why is air pressure affected by water vapor?
Air that is moist is not dense and rises, leading to clouds, which only form in low pressure.
Low pressure rises, expands, and cools, making a cloud. The pressure is cooling and becomes more dense again and sinks. The high pressure goes down, hits the ground, and spreads out. High pressure always flows to low pressure, which is what causes wind. The cycle repeats.
Tell as much as you can about hurricanes.
- The water needs to be at least 80 degrees at water at least 160 ft deep.
- They die without water.
- The center is perfectly calm, but right around it is the worst part of the storm.
- The isobars are extremely close together.
- Travel with the prevailing winds.
- They get a name from a wind speed over 35 (tropical depression).
Relative humidity and dew point are a big part in the reference tables. Check them over. describe relative humdity and dew point.
- The point at which dew forms.
- How much water is in the air compared to how much it can hold. at a low temperature, it can only hold a little bit of water, but at a high temperature it holds more. That is why in the winter, humdity is usually higher, but doesn't feel that way is because there is a lot more humidity in the summer, but compared to the amount that summer can hold, that that amount wouldn't be possible in winter.
A front is __________.
A boundary between two air masses.
The four types of fronts are _________.
Cold, warm, stationary, and occluded.
Cold fronts are __________.
Warm in front of it, and usually has a west or north wind.
Warm fronts are ____________.
Cold in front of it, and usually have a southern wind,
At the boundary of a cold front moving in, ___________.
- Temperatures drop
- Windy because of wind shifts
- Heavy precipitation
- possible thunderstorms or tornadoes.
Why are the boundary's weird?
Warm air is forced upwards and forms a cloud, which may lead to precipitation, and the wind is quickly switching directions.
How do clouds form?
- Warm is rises and expands from lower air pressure.
- Expanding air begins to cool and cool air can't hold as much water as warm air.
- Air cools until it reaches 100% relative humidity.
- Water vapor condenses onto dust in the air (condensation nuclei)
- The droplets join, and when they become too heavy to be held up by uplifts, they precipitate
High clouds are made of __________.
Fog is ____________.
A cloud at the ground.
Describe the orthographic affect.
mP air mass moves in over a mountain and is forced up. Because the windward side is moist, it's relative humidity is high and it will rain. That means the leeward side gets little water and precipitation. Remember there is hardLEE any water on the leeward side.
What are seabreezes?
Occur during the day. Because of waters high specific heat, the water is colder than the air, and it means that water has a higher pressure over it than land. The high pressure flows to the low pressure, and carries the cold temperature from the water. Then the pressure warms, rises, and falls again on the water and the cycle reoccurs.
What are land breezes?
Occur during the night. Because of waters high specific heat, the water is warmer than the air, and it means that water has a lower pressure over it than land. The high pressure on the land flows to the low pressure, and carries the cold temperature from the land. Then the pressure warms, rises, and falls again on the land and the cycle reoccurs.
What is the difference betwween climate and weather?
Weather is short term and climate is long term.
List three factors that affect the climate.
- Mountain ranges/elevation
- Sun's angle (latitiude)
- Proximaty to water
When you're living near a large body of water,_____________.
Your seasons are less intense because the weather is effected by the high specific heat of water.
Why is it warmer in Europe than it is here, even though they have a higher latitude?
Europe is influenced y warm ocean currents.
What are the three ways energy is transferred and describe them.
- Conduction-Tranfer through touch
- Convection-Transfer of heat from density differences
- Radiation-Transfer by waves. Long and short waves, from lengths of gammarays to radiowaves.
Energy always moves ____________.
To where there is less energy (equilibrium)
Dark and rough objects heat up ____________ than light and smooth surfaces because ______________.
Dark and rough objects heat up faster than light and smooth surfaces because light and smooth surfaces reflect the heat coming in.
The warming of the earth is a result of _____________.
certain gasses absorbing IR light. If we didn't have it, we would freeze to death.
What does insolation mean?
Incoming solar radiation.
How doess the angle of the sun affect incoming Solar radiation?
When the angle of the sun is high, it can radiate more.
How doess the duration of days affect incoming Solar radiation?
When the sun is out longer, it radiates longer.
How doess the texture of something affect incoming Solar radiation?
A dark, rough object absorbs heat better.
How does specific heat affect incoming Solar radiation?
The higher th specific heat, the harder it is to heat it up.
How do aerosols affect incoming Solar radiation?
If pollutants are in the air, energy can't reach the surface.
How does cloud cover affect incoming Solar radiation?
If clouds are in the way, radiation won't reach the ground.
How does atmospheric transperency affect incoming Solar radiation?
If the atmosphere won't allow light, heat won't reach the Earth's crust.
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