Ergonomics Final

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Ergonomics Final
2011-05-15 12:51:39
Athletic Footwear

Ergonomics Final
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  1. Name TWO commonly used parts of athletic shoes that can contain allergenic substances.
    Leather tanning agent s ; rubber-leather adhesive ; eyelets
  2. In class, we covered at least two reasons for wicking. Name two.
    Hygiene ; in-shoe stability ; protecting the playing mat from pools of sweat
  3. Describe how friction between the shoe and the surface can lead to injury… a/ If friction between shoe and surface is too high:
    b/ If friction between shoe and surface is too low
    • a) sticking occurs leading to sprains
    • b)the surface is slippery, leading to injury
  4. When describing a sport surface, the term compliance means how much the surface deforms under load. Tell me the advantage and the disadvantage of a surface that does not deform under load.
    a/ advantage----------------------------------------------------------------------------------enhances performance by minimizing energy loss---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------b/ disadvantage-----------------------------------------------------------------------------injury due to lack of shock absorption
  5. What is meant by “compression sets” when describing an EVA midsole?
    After repeated use, the microscopic air bubbles in EVA crush down permanently, decreasing the ability of the EVA to absorb shock
  6. Name the three types of construction lasts.
    Straight ; semi-curved ; curved
  7. Name the four types of internal lasts
    slip ; board ; combination ; Strobel
  8. Name the three categories under which running shoes are marketed.
    Neutral (stability)a/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- High arch (neutral cushion)b/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- flat arch (motion control)c/ -----------------------------------------------------
  9. Describe two differences between RACING FLATS and TRAIL SHOES.
    Racing flats: lightweight, thin soled, little support, minimal overlay, little shock absorbtiona/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Trail shoes: heavy, chunky sole, major support, major overlays, less flexibleb/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  10. What is the purpose of a spike plate?
    The spike plate is the area which houses the spikes and helps keep the athlete on the toes
  11. What two field events have spike plates with spikes in the heel?
    javelina/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- high jumpb/ ------------------------------
  12. What element do shoes used for throwing events have in common with shoes used by American football running backs?
    Forefoot strap
  13. a. What is meant by the term “runner’s varus”
    when running the feet have to abduct (plant) beneath the body midline---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------this causes the heel to contact in a varus pitch, leading to pronation after contact
  14. What part of the running shoe takes runner’s varus into account?
    The midsole at the heel
  15. What was the landmark feature of the Saucony grid?
    The Saucony Grid was the first to minimize the rubber on the sole of the shoe, saving weight;---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rubber is the heaviest single material used in athletic shoe construction; the “grid”---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------design allowed the small triangles of rubber to compress into the midsole
  16. List one advantage and one disadvantage of the minimalist running shoe.
    Core strengthening ; postural improvement ; lighter weight ; more natural stride ; allows feet and legs to strengthen due to lack of dependency on the shoea/ Advantage---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------topical injuries ; lack of adaptation ; non-forefoot strikersb/ Disadvantage -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  17. List four requirements of a soccer shoe.
    Comfortable fit ; varied last shapes ; combination lasts ; feel for the balla/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------lightweight ; flexible allowing total freedom of movement ; firm bonded internally-padded heel counterb/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------stud choices ; footbed cushioning and support ; stability ; upper material molds to the footc/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  18. What is the chief difference between the soccer shoe cleats used for hard ground and soft ground?
    Hard ground cleat is shorter than the soft ground cleat
  19. Describe the cleats used for sports that will be played on astroturf.
    Astroturf shoes have numerous short, rubber, round cleats
  20. What elements are added to soccer goalkeepers’ shoes?
    Extra lateral cleats to aid with lateral jumps
  21. Name two racquet sports which use shoes with gum soles.
    Squash ; racquetball ; badminton ; handball ;
  22. What is the purpose of AXIAL (frontal plane) UNCOUPLING in tennis shoes?
    Axial uncoupling allows the forefoot to stay in full ground contact while allowing the heel to remain parallel to the leg, preventing ankle sprains during wide-stance moves
  23. Name two factors requiring special consideration when designing tennis shoes for hard courts.
    Shock absorption ; heat insulation
  24. Name four requirements of boxing shoes.
    Traction ; comfortable fit ; lightweight ; flexible at mtp-joints ; stability ; low profile ; ankle support ; breathability/wicking ; toe box protection and stability
  25. Describe two differences between the shoes used by American football linebackers versus American football wide receivers.
    Linebackers shoes: solid ; heavier ; ankle protectiona/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wide receiver shoes: lightweight ; low-cut ; less protection all around
  26. Name two particularly special requirements of volleyball shoes.
    Toe cap protectiona/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wicking
  27. Name four characteristics of baseball shoes.
    Firm heel counter ; torsional (axial) rigidity ; stable, harder leather upper ;a/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------single density full length EVA midsole for stability and shock absorptionb/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------board last ; molded or detachable cleats ; sockliner ; toe caps for pitchers ; c/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------pull tab at heel ; ankle strap ; Achilles pad ;
  28. Name 4 characteristics of basketball shoes.
    Lateral stability ; upper firmly bonded to sole ; sole stable but not rigid ;a/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ankle and foot support ; cushioning ; traction ; wicking ; durability ; b/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------heel stability ; comfortable fit ; low profile
  29. The portion of the pointe shoe that the tips of the toes contact when en pointe is called the
  30. Why do women more often use leather ballet slippers and men more often wear canvas ballet slippers?
    Leather has a higher coefficient of friction (more traction) than canvas. Women have lighter bodies than men. Women therefore need stickier shoes for grip to the floor, while men often prefer the freedom of movement that canvas affords
  31. Where did the term TURF TOE come from?
    The Houston Astrodome was the first pro sports venue to use artificial turf, called Astroturf®, which---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------is made of green woven plastic. For the first several months of its use, the turf caught athletes traditional cleats, especially at the toe. Athletes who fell or---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------were pushed forward forced hyperdorsiflexion at the mtp-joints tearing the plantar ligaments of these joints. This hyperdorsiflexion injury is called “turf toe”