1. Stress- heightened arousal so info is not processed effectively. 2. Some people hallucinate more easily. 3. Influences hallucinatory responses. 4. Hallucinations bring relief by reducing anxiety. 5. People see or hear what they believe exists
Two types of delusions
Result of abnormal cognitions and result of abnormal perceptions
Rules that are not formalised but are generally agreed.
Expectation that someone will behave in a certain way which causes that person's behaviour to turn out as expected because they begin to act in a way that will optimise the expected outcome.
Double bind- Bateson et al (1956)
When communication between parents and offspring is contradictory i.e. tone and body language
Conflict between parents results in competition for the affection of family members and a desire to control the other parent
One partner is abnormally dominating and the other submissive. Children are encouraged to follow the dominate partner resulting in impairment of cognitive and social development
Extreme restlessness and agitation
Person is rewarded by desirable behaviour by being given tokens. The more the behaviour is desirable, the more tokens they receive- exchanged for items that the individual wants.
Problem solving therapy
Involves identifying the problem and devising the most appropriate solution rather than working on individual's natural coping strategies.