schizophrenia key words

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schizophrenia key words
2011-05-15 13:41:13
psychology revision

key words
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  1. Auditory hallucinations
    Person 'hears' voices in the mind talking to eachother or directly to them
  2. Delusions
    False beliefs that can take many forms e.g. thinking you are God or that people want to harm you.
  3. Disordered thinking
    Person feels their thoughts have been inserted/withdrawn from their mind.
  4. Control
    Lack of self control; control of an alien power
  5. Emotional and volitional changes
    Emotions are 'flat' and person has little energy
  6. Primary impairments- Wing (1992)
    Intrinsic to the disorder e.g. hallucinations, delusions
  7. Secondary impairments- Wing (1992)
    Result from primary impairments e.g. unemployment, loss of confidence.
  8. Positive symptoms
    Additional to normal behaviour or experience. e.g. hallucinations. Type 1 schizophrenia; responsive to drug treatment, limbic system abnormalities.
  9. Negative symptoms
    Deficit in normal behaviour patterns e.g. lack of communication or emotional expression. Type 2 schizophrenia; less responsive to drugs, abnormalities in the frontal lobes and enlarged ventricles.
  10. Diagnosis criteria for schizophrenia
    Two or more symptoms each present for one month causing a disturbance in everyday life that lasts for six months. The six months should include at least one month of symptoms.
  11. Paranoid
    Preoccupation with one or more delusions or hallucinations.
  12. Catatonic
    Immobility, echolalia and echopraxia
  13. Echolalia
    repetition of a word or phrase
  14. Echopraxia
    Repeating of gestures made by others
  15. Disorganised
    Disorganised speech and behaviour
  16. Undifferentiated
    Criteria not met for the three main types
  17. Residual
    Negative symptoms but absence of the other criteria
  18. Schizoid
    Disorder that resemble schizophrenia but does not have the psychotic symptoms such as 'loss of reality'
  19. Limbic system
    Subcortical structure that includes the hippocampus and amygdala
  20. Corpus callosum
    Large bundle of fibres that connects the two hemispheres of the brain
  21. Five Factor Model- Slade and Benrall (1988)
    Explains onset of schizophrenia-type symptoms
  22. 1.Stress induced arousal. 2. Predisposition. 3. The environment. 4. Reinforcement. 5. Expectancy
    1. Stress- heightened arousal so info is not processed effectively. 2. Some people hallucinate more easily. 3. Influences hallucinatory responses. 4. Hallucinations bring relief by reducing anxiety. 5. People see or hear what they believe exists
  23. Two types of delusions
    Result of abnormal cognitions and result of abnormal perceptions
  24. Residual rules
    Rules that are not formalised but are generally agreed.
  25. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    Expectation that someone will behave in a certain way which causes that person's behaviour to turn out as expected because they begin to act in a way that will optimise the expected outcome.
  26. Double bind- Bateson et al (1956)
    When communication between parents and offspring is contradictory i.e. tone and body language
  27. Schismatic families
    Conflict between parents results in competition for the affection of family members and a desire to control the other parent
  28. Skewed families
    One partner is abnormally dominating and the other submissive. Children are encouraged to follow the dominate partner resulting in impairment of cognitive and social development
  29. Akathisia
    Extreme restlessness and agitation
  30. Token economies
    Person is rewarded by desirable behaviour by being given tokens. The more the behaviour is desirable, the more tokens they receive- exchanged for items that the individual wants.
  31. Problem solving therapy
    Involves identifying the problem and devising the most appropriate solution rather than working on individual's natural coping strategies.