BIOL230 Test 3 Immunity Disorders

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jswareham
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85960
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BIOL230 Test 3 Immunity Disorders
Updated:
2011-05-15 16:14:12
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lymphocyte deficiency Hypogammaglobulinemia Dysgammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia Hypersensitivity Anaphylactic Arthus Cytotoxic
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CCBC BIOL230 Dr. Jeffrey Test 3 subject: immunity disorders
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  1. What is the difference between primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders?
    • Primary are immunodeficiency disorders that you're born with (rare).
    • Secondary are immunodeficiency disorders that you're not born with that are acquired during lifespan (common).
  2. Name 3 primary B-lymphocyted immunodeficiency disorders where ABY are reduced or missing and how are they treated?
    • Hypogammaglobulinemia - all types of ABY's are decreased.
    • Dysgammaglobulinemia - 1 type of ABY is decreased (usually IgA)
    • Agammaglobulinemia
    • (fatal; lack functional GALT and/or neonatal stem cells)
    • Keep away from infections, give ABX, give ABY (passive artificial), bone marrow transplant in severe cases.
  3. What are the 2 causes of primary T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency disorder?
    • Lack of functional thymus gland
    • Lack of neonatal stem cells.
  4. What are the 2 effects of primary T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency disorder?
    • Susceptability to infections.
    • Susceptability to cancers.
  5. How do you treat primary T-lymphocyte immunodeficiency disorder?
    • Keep away from infectious and cancer causing agents.
    • Give ABX
    • Give ABY
    • Bone marrow transplant
    • Stem cell transplant
    • Thymus gland transplant
  6. Give 8 factors that induce secondary immunodeficiency disorders.
    • Stress
    • Poor diet
    • Lack of sleep
    • Smoking
    • Excess alcohol
    • Infections (HIV, flu, chicken pox, etc...)
    • Chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, over use of ABX)
    • Radiation exposure
  7. What is an immunohypersensitivity response?
    An Allergy, over reaction by immune system against an AGN, which can result in harm to self
  8. How are allergies induced?
    Usually due to over-exposure to the same large AGN
  9. What is the term for an AGN that the body becomes an allergic hypersensitive to, and what are they usually made of?
    • Allergen
    • Proteins
  10. What are the 2 types of immune hypersensitivity?
    • Immediate hypersensitivity - allergy symptoms appear within 48 hours after exposure.
    • Delayed hypersensitivity - allergy symptoms appear over 48 hours after exposure.
  11. In immediate hypersensitivity what is the general cause of the allergic reaction?
    B-lymphocytes over react, producing excessive ABY's
  12. Give 3 examples of Immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Anaphylactic reaction
    • Arthus reaction
    • Cytotoxic reaction
  13. In an anaphylactic reaction describe the mechanism for the over reaction.
    • When multiple exposures to an allergen cause some people to produce high levels of IgE.
    • IgE Fab end attaches to the allergen, Fc end attaches to the surface of mast cells
    • Overtime the mast cells burst, releasing histamine.
    • Released histamine causes excess inflammation to occur (dilation of blood vessel, WBC's attracted, inflammation)
  14. What are the symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction on the skin?
    • Raised red rash
    • Hives
  15. What are the symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction in the respiratory tract?
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Cough
    • Light headedness, dizzy
    • Respiratory failure
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased BP
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Stroke
  16. What are the symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction of inhaled allergens?
    • Sneezing
    • Cough
    • Tired
    • Respiratory failure
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased BP
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Stroke
  17. What are the symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction of ingested food allergens?
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Hives
    • Diarrhea
    • Respiratory failure
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased BP
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Stroke
  18. How do you treat anaphylactic reactions?
    • Keep away from allergens
    • Antihistimines
    • Steroids
    • Adrenalin (Epinephrine); vasoconstrictor
    • Allergy shots (desensitization)
  19. In an arthus reaction describe the mechanism for the over reaction.
    • Large dose of allergen/AGN directly into blood. (IV medications, IV drug use, snake bite)
    • ABY binds to allergen, Complement attaches to ABY
    • Allergen-ABY-Complement complex appear in blood
    • Risk of blockage of blood vessels, blood clots, and hemorrhages
  20. In an Cytotoxic reaction describe the mechanism for the over reaction.
    • Body
    • makes excess ABY against self or altered self
  21. List 4 examples of cytotoxic immediate hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Lupus (SLE) - ABY against DNA
    • Rheumatoid arthritis - ABY against a protein in joints
    • Multiple Sclerosis - ABY against myelin protein around nerve cells
    • Rheumatic fever - ABY against a protein in the mitral valve of the heart (heart protein mistaken for a group A beta Strep.)
  22. Give 3 examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Contact dermititis (skin rash) - poison ivy, cosmetics, insects, spiders
    • Skin tests (TB test)
    • Transplant rejection

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