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Brown v Board of Education
Case involved Linda Brown of Topeka, Kansas who hadbeen forced to attend a distant segregated school rather than the nearby whiteelementary school. The NAACP’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, argued that suchsegregation was unconstitutional because it denied Linda Brown the “equal protection ofthe laws” guaranteed by the 14th amendment. The court agreed, overturning theseparate but equal doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson○SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS WAS:The court agreed, overturning the separate butequal doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson
Regents of the University of California v Bakke
1978 Allan Bakke got rejected from theUniversity of Cal at Davis Medical School. Took his case to the Supreme court, sayinghe was more qualified then some of the applicants admitted. 5 to 4 ruling, The court toldthe school to allow Bakke in and establish a more flexible approach. Brought in toquestion affirmative action, but didn’t change feeling of affirmative action, if not increasedit because the court ruled that diversity was necessary.
Tom Wolfe in his famous essay called “Me Decade” “observedAmericans obsession with self exploration, the millions seeking new identities personalrather than political awareness. The 70’s was a decade in which image becamepreeminent because nothing deeper was going on. He related two phenomena. First heand new sources of spiritual awareness.” This is an era of narcissism, selfishness, andcalled
Rise of Evangelical Christianity (1970s+)
Everywhere in the US from the 70s-80s signsappeared of the influence of evangelical Christianity. In 76 a born-again baptist, namedJimmy Carter became president. In 1980 revivalist Billy Grahams newspaper, Decision,hit 24 million in circulation. Religious radio stations numbered in the thousands. Manytelevangelists (Jim Bakker, Pat Robertson) became national figures. Polls revealed thatnearly half of Americans believed the Bible was the actual word of God. Evangelicalsemphasized three things: The importance of the Bible, the conviction that the end ofdays would soon arrive, and personal conversion- process of being touched by the HolySpirit, of being reborn in Christ. Where is this information from? -pg 92-101 of TheSeventies. Didn’t take me very long to look it up for you. There is an index in the back ofthe novel.
Rise of the Sunbelt
Since post WW II, the United States government poured money intodefense spending, building of military bases, and the space program in the south andsouthwest, that led to an economic boom. When the Mideast, and Northeast “the RustBelt” were on the decline, many migrant workers moved to the south for jobs. Thisincreased the diversification's of people in the south, and ultimately led to a strongerfoundation for the Republican party.
Equal Rights Amendment
Since the Women's conference had great success, Womenwanted to get the ERA of 1924 to get passed, that said “Equal protection under the law,and you can’t base off sex” It was enthusiastically adopted in 1972, and achieved greatsuccess in 34 states ratifying it, until an abrupted halt. This was all due to a conservativefundamentalist lawyer by the name of Phyllis Schlafly who wanted to keep our societyfrom becoming a “unisex society” were women were drafted into the military, and usedsame sex toilets. She rallied grass-root organizations for her cause, that ultimatelyaffected America by showing them, of the rapid social change that has been occurring,and ultimately led to the halt of the ERA.
White House Conference on the Family
- -The White House Conference on Families bothexemplified the contested nature of family policy since the late 19 century andinaugurated the latest phase in the venerable invocations of family values as a tactic forpolitical mobilization. In 1976 Jimmy Carter proposed a White House Conference on theAmerican Family in order to shore up support among the cultural conservatives.[addmore], 1980 They wanted to figure out what made a strong family.
- Many said that faith in family is the nation’s anchor. Was different from other
- white house conferences because it called on common families to speak out on
- what made a family strong.(in the past white house conferences had been in DC
- and made up of experts and scholars)
A Conservative political movement that began in the 60s with Barry Goldwater,and led all the way to Ronald Regan's election in 1980. New Right activists generallysupported aggressive foreign affairs policies, and domestically to limit abortions, samesex marriage, and affirmative action.
Ronald Regan in 1980 ran on the platform that he was going tobalance the budget, and limit big government. His famous saying “Government is not thesolution” “Government is the problem”. He made major tax cuts in what is known asReganomics, where you limit the taxes of the rich in order for them to increase thesupply. The US government ultimately lost $200 Billion in these tax cuts, and were neverable pay it. The US deficit actually triple-folded during his time, to over 3 trillion dollars.When FDR was president there was only 100 people working for him, but under Reganover 1000. Ultimately in the end, he was only able to achieve major tax cuts, anddramatic defense spending. His federal spending, and federal taxes were the samelevels in 1981- as they were when he left office in 1989. His promise of balancing thebudget and downsizing the government in the end proved false, and dubbed fromConservative commentators that there was no “Reagan Revolution.” (893-895)
the strange sight of normal people in America breaking off from regular societyfrom family, and community and creating worlds of their own. He identified thefragmentation and separation. The second phenomenon was a widespread religiousrevival. He said that we are now going to see the third great awakening of a greatreligious wave in America. “Americans chased new pasts, new futures, new God- andthey chased them by and for themselves. “ also on page 145