Historical Terms

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hope0827
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85985
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Historical Terms
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2011-05-15 17:56:48
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Historical Terms
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Historical
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  1. Abolitionism
    movement in western Europe/Americas to abolish slavery
  2. Absolutism
    political theory that power should be vested in one ruler
  3. Allies
    Allied Nations)
    • WWII-countries who opposed Axis powers
    • British empire, Soviet union, US, China, and France
  4. Axis
    • WWII
    • Germany, Italy, Japan
  5. Apartheid
    • racial segregation involved political/legal/economic rights
    • practiced in Republic of South Africa
  6. Baroque Age
    1600-1750
    emphasized grandeur, spaciousness, unity, and emotional impact
  7. Bill of Rights
    first 10 amendments of US Constitution
  8. Bourgeoisie
    middle class (according to Karl Marx)
  9. Caste
    Hinduism hereditary social class that restricts members according to social structure
  10. Calvinism
    • John Calvin religious doctrines
    • stern/militant stance, rejection of medieval church's practices/traditions, salvation by God's grace alone
  11. Cold War (1947-1991)
    • political hostility between US and Russia
    • competitive political conflict, propaganda, arms race(nuclear weapons), space exploration
    • ended after Soviet Union collapse 1991
  12. Communism
    Economic system-all people control the means and distribution of production
  13. Conciliar Movement
    14-16th centuries movement, two popes at the same time, proposed that the church be ruled by bishops, cardinals, abbots, and laity
  14. Constitutionalism
    rules limited gvmnt; consent of governed provided the basis for the legitimacy of the regime
  15. Cultural Revolution
    1966-1976 in China, Chinese military, led by Mao Zedong upheld a system of beliefs that the bourgeoisie were a negative influence on Chinese culture
  16. Czar
    (tsar)
    • A male monarch or emperor
    • especially one of the emperors Russia of 1917
  17. Dred Scott
    slave sued for freedom since his owner took him into a free state. US Supreme Court ruled that residence in a free state did not make a slave free
  18. Empiricists
    relied on inductive reasoning, with emphasis on sensory experience
  19. Feminism
    movement to give equal rights for females
  20. Geneva Conference
    developed humanitarian laws about the treatment of enemy combatants, prisoners, and civilian persons in a time of war
  21. Great Schism
    • two popes claimed authority over the Catholic Church
    • Rome/France during 40 year period of Late Middle Ages
  22. Great Depression
    economic depression before WWII, stock market crash, coupled with high unemployment and agricultural devastation in the Midwest, brought US economy to a standstill
  23. Homestead Act of 1862
    160 acres of unoccupied public land to anyone farming it for 5 yrs; land could be acquired after 6 months of residency and at a price of 1.25 per acre. Led to settlement of much of the West
  24. Imperialism
    political or economic domination of one country over another
  25. Laissez-faire capitalism
    gvmnt does not advocate regulation of the economic market
  26. Magna Carta
    charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John in 1215; document that formed the origin of English law
  27. Manifest Destiny
    policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
  28. Missouri Compromise
    (1820)
    measure passed to balance slavery. Missouri's statehood (slave state) Maine (free state) drew line to the Pacific Coast limiting the extension of slavery above 36/30 latitude. (Henry Clay Compromise)
  29. Muckraker
    writer who primarily reports about provocative social and political issues concerning major leaders
  30. NATO
    (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
    1949 for perceived threat of Soviet attack. Main purpose is to safeguard countries against aggression
  31. Pluralism
    holding of more than one office
  32. Prohibition
    manufacture/sale of ETOH prohibited in 18th amendment (1920-1933) repealed 21st amendment
  33. Proletariat
    according to Marx, hard working, laboring class
  34. Rationalists
    those who stressed deductive reasoning or mathematical logic
  35. Renaissance
    (1300-1600)
    secular movement that stressed individual growth of arts, and human abilities. Began in Italy
  36. Red Scare
    Russia's fall to Communism prompted scare, led to many being arrested and deported as undesirable foreigners or communists
  37. The Reformation
    (1517-1560)
    abuses in the church led some to question the church's authority in determining the individual's role vis a vis God. Begun by Martin Luther; gave rise to Protestant churches
  38. Republic
    Gvmnt where people elect reps
  39. The Restoration
    1660-1688
    In England, New Parliament restores a limited monarchy, Charles II agreed to abide by decisions of Parliament, Royalists allowed to recover their lands in court. Feudalism abolished
  40. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    (1890)
    Prohibited combo/conspiracies in restraint of trade; US Supreme Court eventually applied it to unions and farmer cooperatives as well as corps.
  41. Simony
    purchase of church positions
  42. Suffrage
    right to vote

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