BIOL230 Test 3 BIS

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jswareham
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85993
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BIOL230 Test 3 BIS
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2011-05-15 18:54:51
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Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenesC Lyme Disease Borrelia burgdorferi Bacillus anthracis Clostridium tetani perfringens Leprosy Hauseus Pseudomonas
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CCBC BIOL230 Dr. Jeffrey Test 3 subject: Bacterial Infections/Skin
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  1. Staphylococcus aureus
    1. Causes
    2. Caused by
    3. Organism Description
    4. Transmission
    5. Incubation period
    6. Symptoms
    7. Complications
    8. Treatment
    9. Prevention
    • 1. Most common cause of Skin infections, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Scalded Skin Syndrome, Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria)
    • 2. Staphylococcus aureus
    • 3. G+ coccus, bunches, Found in nose and throat of carriers
    • 4. from infected skin abscess
    • 5. 2-4 days
    • 6. -Skin Infections - Pustules, pimples, acne, boils (furuncles), small blisters (carbuncles), impetigo (rash) of face with pus
    • -Toxic Shock Syndrome - Rash, fever, blood vessel damage
    • -Scalded Skin Syndrome - Slim blisters that peels away
    • -Necrotizing Fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria) - Leading cause of burn and wound infections
    • 7. n/a
    • 8. Difficult; Antibiotics (ABX) - azithromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline
    • 9. no vaccine
  2. Staph. aureus is dangerous because it produces many exotoxins and harmful enzymes. List some of the exotoxins and enzymes produced.
    • Necrotizing toxins - kills cells and tissue
    • Enterotoxin - damage intestines
    • Exfoliating toxins - skin layers separate and peels
    • Hemolysins - destroys RBC's
    • Leukocidins - destroys WBC's
    • Collagenase - destroys connective tissue
    • Coagulates - clots blood
    • Capsules
    • Can easily become antibiotic (ABX) resistant
  3. Group A beta Strep.
    1. Causes
    2. Caused by
    3. Organism Description
    4. Transmission
    5. Incubation period
    6. Symptoms
    7. Complications
    8. Treatment
    9. Prevention
    • 1. pharygitis, skin infections, Scarlet fever, Necrotizing fasciitis, Erysipilas, Scarlitina
    • 2. Streptococcus pyogenes
    • 3. G+ coccus in chains
    • 4. respiratory secretions (pharangeal cough)
    • 5. ?
    • 6.-pharygitis; Strep throat and other respiratory complications
    • -skin infections; impetigo
    • -Scarlet fever; rash and high fever
    • -Necrotizing fasciitis
    • -Erysipilas; red, circular rash on trunk of children
    • -Scarlitina; red rash
    • 7. n/a
    • 8. ABX - penicillin, cephalosporin, azithromycin, erythromycins
    • 9. no vaccine
  4. List 3 exotoxins Streptococcus pyogenes produces.
    • Necrotizing toxins - kills cells and tissue
    • Hemolysins - destroys RBC's
    • Erythrogenic toxins - causes Scarlet Fever
  5. Lyme Disease
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Borrelia burgdorferi
    • 2. spirochete
    • 3. carried by ticks and spreads to humans by tick vector (deer ticks), enters skin at site of tick attachment
    • 4. 7-14 days
    • 5. -large Bull's eye rash near site of tick attachment, lasts 1-3 weeks
    • -Bacteria spreads to joints and causes inflammation (arthritis)
    • 6. -Damage to lining of blood vessels (Blood pressure changes)
    • -Endocarditis - change in heart rate
    • -Depression-like symptoms - mental changes
    • -If untreated symptoms can persist on and off for life
    • 7. needs to be done immediately; ABX - erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline
    • 8. no vaccine yet
  6. Anthrax
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Bacillus anthracis
    • 2. G+ spore former, No natural cases in U.S.
    • 3. Spores are found in certain soils (dry, desert-like), Spores get into skin or are inhaled, Spores germinate and bacteria produces necrotizing exotoxins
    • 4. n/a
    • 5. Exotoxin damages - skin; open sores
    • -Lungs; Sores, hemorrhages, pneumonia,
    • 6. Possibly death from pulmonary anthrax
    • 7. ABX - penicillin, cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin
    • 8. n/a
  7. Tetanus
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Clostridium tetani
    • 2. G+ anaerobic spore former
    • 3. Spores found in animal intestine, feces, and soil; Spores introduced into a low oxygen puncture wound; Spores germinate in wound, bacteria produces an exotoxin which enters blood and nervous systems
    • 4. n/a
    • 5. Tetanus
    • toxin block cholinesterase and causes constant muscle contraction
    • 6. Death from respiratory failure
    • 7. antitoxin
    • ABY's
    • 8. DPT
    • vaccine (DiphtheriaPertussisTetanus)
  8. Gas Gangrene
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Clostridium perfringens
    • 2. G+ anaerobic spore former
    • 3. Spores found in animal intestine, feces, and soil; Spores introduced into a low oxygen puncture wound; Spores germinate in wound, bacteria produces a necrotizing exotoxin
    • 4. n/a
    • 5. -Exotoxin kills cells and tissues, tissues soften and discolors, wet, gas formation
    • -Tissue has no feeling because of nerve damage
    • -Loss of tissue function
    • -Bacteria spreads to other tissues and vital organs (organ failure)
    • 6. n/a
    • 7. -ABX - penicillin, cephalosporin
    • -Removal of dead and infected tissues to allow new blood vessels.
    • -Hyperbaric chamber - floods body with oxygen
    • -Amputation
    • 8. no vaccine
  9. Hauseus Disease - Leprosy
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Mycobacterium leprae
    • 2. -Acid fast slender rod
    • -100-200 cases per year in U.S.
    • -20 million cases per year world wide
    • 3. -Infected soils enter a wound
    • -Infected secretions enter wound
    • -Possibly insects
    • -Not easy to spread human to human
    • 4. 3-6 weeks
    • 5. -Open sores on exposed skin (face, neck, head, arms, feet)
    • -Scar tissue forms around sores and harden, disfiguring lumps of scar tissue
    • -Spread to bone - necrosis and ulceration of bones
    • -Spread to local nervous system - anesthesia
    • -Takes years for all symptoms to develop
    • 6. -Spread to lungs - tuberculoid leprosy, Scarring pneumonia, death
    • 7. ABX can slow down the progress of infection - sulfa drugs, rifamycin, streptomycin
    • 8. no vaccine
  10. Pseudomonas
    1. Caused by
    2. Organism Description
    3. Transmission
    4. Incubation period
    5. Symptoms/Duration
    6. Complications
    7. Treatment
    8. Prevention
    • 1. Pseudomonas
    • 2. G- rod; Found in intestines and on healthy skin
    • 3. Infects skin as an opportunist
    • 4. n/a
    • 5. -Leading cause of burn and wound infections
    • -Can also cause UT infections, ear infections, septicemia, and pneumonia
    • 6. n/a
    • 7. very ABX resistant; ABX - gentamycin, amikacin, colistrin, carbenicillin
    • 8. no vaccine

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