Philosophical figures

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hope0827
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Philosophical figures
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2011-05-15 21:57:56
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Philo figures
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Philo figures
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  1. Anselm of Canterbury
    • 11th century philosopher
    • ontological argument for existence of God
  2. Thomas Aquinas
    • 13th century philosopher
    • "Five Ways"-five proofs of existence of God
  3. Aristotle
    • 3rd century BCE Greek philosopher
    • criticized Plato's theory of Forms; first to systematize logic
  4. Augustine of Hippo
    • 4-5th century bishop/philosopher
    • Neo-platonist, profound influence on medieval religious thought
  5. J.L. Austin
    • British philosopher of language
    • developed speech act theory
  6. Jeremy Bentham
    • British philosopher of law
    • utilitarian
  7. Henri-Louis Bergson
    • French philosopher
    • dualist, rejected mechanistic/deterministic approach to understanding reality
  8. George Berkeley
    • Irish philosopher
    • idealist, empiricist
  9. F.H. Bradley
    • English philosopher
    • idealist
    • wrote:Appearance and Reality
  10. Franz Brentano
    • German philosopher and psychologist
    • "doctrine of intentionally"
  11. Rudolf Carnap
    • German philosopher
    • logical positivist
  12. Noam Chomsky
    • American linguist and philosopher
    • innate universal grammar
  13. Samuel Clarke
    English philosopher and theologian
  14. Donald Davidson
    • American philosopher of language and philosopher of mind
    • theory of anomalous monism-Mind/Body relationship
  15. Democritus
    • 3-4th BCE Greek philosopher
    • atomic theory
  16. Rene Descartes
    • French rationalist philosopher
    • mathematician
    • mind/body relation=Cartesian dualism
    • "coqito ergo sum"=I think therefore I am
  17. Joh Dewey
    • American pragmatist philosopher
    • educational theorist
  18. Friedrich Engels
    • Marx's collaborator
    • dialectical materialist
  19. Friedrich Frege
    • German mathematician and philosopher
    • founder of modern logic
    • father of analytic philosophy
  20. Nelson Goodman
    • American philosopher
    • nominalist
    • wrote:Fact Fiction and Forcast, Languages of Art
  21. Georg Hegel
    • German idealist philosopher
    • dialectic theory=process of argument which proceeds from a thesis and its antithesis to a synthesis of the two
  22. Martin Heidegger
    • German philosopher
    • existentialist but claimed not to be
  23. Carl Hempel
    • German empiricist philosopher of science
    • confirmation/explanation theories
  24. Heraclitus
    • 4th BCE pre-Socratic philosopher
    • everything always in state of flux
  25. Thomas Hobbes
    • British materialist philosopher
    • political scientist
    • wrote:Leviathan
  26. David Hume
    • Scottish philosopher
    • historian, empiricist
    • drew attention to problem of induction
  27. Edmund Husserl
    • German philosopher
    • phenomenologist
  28. William James
    • American philosopher
    • psychologist, empiricist, pragmatist
  29. Immanuel Kant
    • German idealist philosopher
    • "act only on that maxim which you can at the same time will to become a universal law"
  30. Soren Kierkegaard
    • Danish philosopher
    • existentialist
  31. Saul Kripke
    • American philosopher
    • logician, "Naming and Necessity"
    • causal theory of reference
  32. Gottfried Leibnitz
    • German rationalist philosopher
    • best of all possible worlds argument
  33. Leucippus
    • 5th BCE Greek philosopher
    • atomic philosophy
  34. John Locke
    • English philosopher
    • physician, Enlightenment thinker, "Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
  35. Karl Marx
    • German social theorist
    • wrote:Das Kapital
  36. Maurice Merleau-Ponty
    • French philosopher
    • worked on ethics and problems of consciousness
  37. James Mill
    • Scottish philosopher
    • economist
    • father of J.S. Mill
  38. J.S. Mill
    • English empiricist philosopher
    • System of Logic, ethical writings, Utilitarianism; On Liberty
  39. George Moore
    • British philosopher
    • Principia Ethica
  40. Ernest Nagel
    • American philosopher of science
    • The Structure of Science
  41. Konstantin Neurath
    • Austrian logical positivist philosopher
    • member of Vienna Circle
  42. Friedrich Nietzsche
    • German philosopher
    • concept of Ubermensch (Overman)
  43. William of Ockham
    • 14th century English philosopher and cleric famous for Ockham's Razor
    • dictum "Do not multiply entities beyond necessity
  44. Blaise Pascal
    • French philosopher
    • mathematician, theologian
    • "Pascal's Wager"-argument providing prudential reasons for believing in God
  45. Charles Peirce
    • American philosopher
    • founder of pragmatism
  46. Plato
    • BCE Greek philosopher
    • wrote dialogs Socrates (main character)->ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics
    • Theory of Forms (ideas)
  47. Plotinus
    3rd century Neoplatonist philosopher
  48. Karl Popper
    • philosopher of science
    • wrote:The Logic of Scientific Discovery
    • falsifiability is the hallmark of science
  49. Pre-Socratics
    general term for all of the Greek philosophers before Socrates
  50. Pythagoras
    • 6th century BCE, pre-Socratic philosopher
    • mathematician
    • transmigration of souls
  51. Willard Quine
    American empiricist philosopher of language and logician
  52. John Rawls
    • American political philosopher and ethicist
    • A Theory of Justice
  53. Thomas Reid
    • Scottish philosopher
    • defended commonsense view-through our senses we can have knowledge of a mind-independent reality
  54. John Jacques Rousseau
    Political philosopher and philosopher of education
  55. Bertrand Russell
    • British philosopher
    • Pricipia Mathematica
    • arguments in "On Denoting" "The Principles of Logical Atomism"
    • believed structure of world can be revealed by language analysis
  56. Gilbert Ryle
    • British philosopher of language and philosopher of mind
    • proponent of logical behaviorism
  57. George Santayana
    • American Platonist philosopher
    • novelist and poet
  58. Jean-Paul Sartre
    • French philosopher
    • Marxist
    • existentialist
  59. Mortiz Schlick
    • Logical positivist philosopher
    • founder of Vienna Circle
  60. Arthur Schopenhauer
    • German philosopher
    • Kantian
    • The World As Will and Idea
  61. Adam Smith
    • Scottish philosopher and political economist
    • wrote:The Wealth of Nations
  62. Benedict de Spinoza
    • Rationalist philosopher
    • Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
  63. Socrates
    • 4th century BCE Greek philosopher
    • ideas survived through writings of his followers such as Plato
  64. Sir Peter Strawson
    • British philosopher of language and metaphysician
    • some meaningful sentences have no true value
  65. Alfred Tarski
    • American logician and mathematician
    • concept of truth for formal logical languages
  66. Thales of Miletus
    • 5-6 BCE pre-Socratic philosopher
    • father of Westhern philosophy
    • first principle of nature is water
    • everything in the universe is made of H2O
  67. Thomism
    theological and philosophical system of St. Thomas Aquinas and his followers
  68. Vienna Circle
    group of logical positivists which centered around the Univ. of Vienna in 1920-30, included Schlick, Carnap and Neurath
  69. Ludwig Wittgenstein
    • Viennese-born philosopher
    • influential on philo of language, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
    • The world is everything that is the case
  70. Zeno of Elea
    • 4th century BCE pre-Socratic philosopher
    • paradoxes intended to show plurality/motion do not really exist

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