who were the mainstream society that began traveling around & getting coins from muslims (usually sons of nobles)
where did the merchant class go to sell their goods
the wall that surrounds the market fair (this eventually became known as the town)
groups or clubs that would perforn a particular service (blacksmith, painter, contractor etc...)
This informed the people of a burg what they had to do and didnt have to do for a lord (annual rent)
if a peasant or escaped criminal could stay in a burg for 1 year + 1 day they could live there without a problem, this was called?
the year and a day rule
what was the warning sound you had to yell before emptying your chamber pot?
what crusade did pope urban say the christians would take back holy land from muslims. and eventually did because the seljuk turks had a civil war going on
who took over what is now turkey and pushed byzantines back to Constantinople?
Who believed his pet goose would lead them to the holy land?
Peter the hermit
what crusade was a complete failure which gave Saladin and the muslims the idea that they could take holy land back and indeed did?
the second crusade
who were the seljuk turks?
Which crusade was fought by a bunch of escaped serfs, criminals and poor people?
The first crusade
What crusade did Fred Barb drown?
The third crusade
which crusade didnt even make it to the holy land?
The fourth crusade
In which crusade did everyone get excommunicated by pope and then after taking over constantinople, Pope let them back in church?
The fourth crusade
Who wanted a sunlight lit cathedral with gothic style windows and stained glass?
Suger of St. Denis
What places were started by a guild of teachers?
What applied rules of logic to catholicism and christian faith from aristotle?
Who wrote the book about scholasticism and trinity?
Who did abelard get pregnant while teaching and tutoring?
Who was devastated after he had to rip out pages of his book and burn them in front of the city?
Who was castrated and became a monk?
What was the previous church style that gothic style replaced?
What was any language but latin?
Who wrote love poems relating to religion that were in the same class as knights?
Who included into poems dedicating things to women that knights could never have?
What was the grass roots movement to make clergy look bad and wanted christianity back to old pure way? (no material things and clergy)
What were lies called that the pope could condemn people for?
Heresy or heresies
What were the monks that were put on a remote area and that spent most of their time praying on their own? (conservatives)
The founder of these people got a bad fever and saw visions once the fever broke he became religious?
Franciscans - Francis of Assisi
Who kissed Francis' foot and got their group through?
Who travelled around and went to places where heretics were and went against them? (later put them on trial)
Who were the group of unmarried women that would care for sick people and the pope eventually forced them into being nuns?
Who would recite bible verses in french and made pope mad because he thought it should only be in Latin?
Waldensians (started by waldo in france)
Who were "the pure ones" that had a crusade called against them. started in byzantine empire and moved to france. "believed world was created by devil and christ was the god. Believed human bodyh was evil?"
Crusade where pope killed cathars and had to raid them castle to castle?
Who were the special groups that elected the pope in the end of the middle ages?
where did the popes move to in France where they lived about thirty years?
What split popes in Rome and Avignon?
The Great Schism
who was the italian pope that the cardinals elected to make crowd happy turns out the pope ends up being a little stronger than the cardinals thought?
Pope Urban VI
What pope did the cardinals pick after urban VI that ended up becoming the pope of avignon?
what were the council meetings called?
The Conciliar movement
what lollard thought women should be allowed to be apart of the clergy and that wine should be shared with everyone?
Who started the Hussites?
What was it called when the third pope was elected? the new election was supposed to make it to where there was only one pope, instead it made three!?
The Council of Pisa
who becomes the only pope that lives in rome which was the only good thing that came out of the council of constance
What two people were burned at the stake even after one of them were dead?
Jan Huss and John Wyclef
What war was between England and france. (England invades France so he can become king of both england and france)
THE 100 YEARS WAR!!!
What three weapons stopped the road for Midevil Knights?
Cross Bows, Long bows, and Guns
what weapons were used by the english that could shoot 4 - 5 arrows per minute?
what weapons were used by the french that were very slow but powerful?
What was the bad part about the guns in the 100 years war?
Could blow up in your face! risky for the people operating them
Who heard voices that they thought were from god and led the french to many victories, but english captured her and put her to death?
Joan of Arc
Who won the 100 years war?
What was the bacterial disease "plague" called?
The black death
What type of plague came through fleas?
what type of plague came through the air?
what type of plague was transmitted through the blood?
What town was the plague spread by mongols or italians?
What were the protests against upper class and government called?
where was the 1st popular uprising?
Paris (defeat of Jacquerie)
Where was the biggest popular uprisng and who led it?
England and (Wat Tyler and preacher John Ball)
what did the council of constance do?
Made only 1 pope
What started popular uprisings?
Wage freezes and new taxes
Who died in the English popular uprising that influneced the uprising even more?
What happened after popular uprising in england?
peasants got some limitations uplifted
Who unified the Mongols?
Temujin- Genghis Khan
What was the golden horde of Russia Mongols etc...?
A Mongol army that invaded most of asia and most of europe
What ottoman turk wanted to take back constantinople and used huge cannons to take down the walls?
What happened to the niece of the emperor when the ottoman turks invaded constantinople?
she escaped to russia and married a russian czar
Who sailed from China to Italy and made people think about faster routes to asia?
When Mehmet took over constantinople that was the end to the _______ empire?
What was the movement where there began to be education on the individual and their inner talents?
Where were the first humanists from?
Who wrote poems in vernancular language? in florence it was a big hit.. it was called the "Divine Comedy" (this guys idol was the old poet virgil)
1st part - Inferno (Hell)
2nd part - puvagotorio (purgatory)
3rd part - Paradiso (Heaven)
Who was the painter that added in more emotion?
Who was the philosopher who believed that western civ had reached its all time lowest (latin was ruined) (wanted to go back to old classic latin)
What does Renaissance mean?
What let there be peace among the italian states and let the renaissance happen?
Treaty of Lodi
In what town did the renaissance begin?
What family ran florence and supported the renaissance?
The Medici Family
What person controlled almost everything in florence?
Where did people go to come up with ideas? (this was inspired by plato's academy)
wrote "Oration on the dignity of man" Supported Plato. Believed humans are the imperfect version of God.
Pico Della Mirandolla
Who ruled after Cosimo Medici and basically started first ever mob. (started a war thinking he can take over france)
Who said the war and the disease of syphilis was because God was mad about renaissance. (He made a bad comment about the pope and he becomes a heretic and is killed)
Who liked the idea of a republic and was taken prisoner when medici family took over florence again? (the prince)
who was the instructional ruler book written for, what was it called, and who wrote it?
Juliano Medici, The Prince, Machievelli
Who said it is better to be feared then loved?
who started writing the names down of the artists?
Who was a master painter, sculpture, architecture and thought of himself most as a sculpture? Did Sistine Chapel
What was the secularizing movement?
who made the florentine academy? (the think tank)
who had bonfires for books and art?
who performed tortures and assasinations and made italy family vs. family?
Who said the end justifies the means?
Who was the first ever real art historian?
What was induvidualism?
What was humanism?
Well educated people (liberal arts)
What was artistic realism?
What was crucial for the spread of humanism?
Gutenburg printing press
What was the name of the country that charles the bold tried to make (got ahold of the netherlands and northern italy)?
Maximilian (French) marries Mary (of Burgundy) Their son Phillip marries Ferdinand and isabella's daughter Joanna
Phillip------Joanna = hapsburg(makes spain)
Phillip and Joanna make habsburg spain
Who was the war of the roses between?
Landcaster and York
Who died in the battle of bosworth?
Henry the Tudor married Elizabeth which was the sister of ______?
King Richard III
what happened when Henry Tudor (Henry VII) married Elizabeth of York?
He had control of everything!
what happened when edward IV died?
His two kids were jailed by richard III their regent (the kids died or were killed)
what was the biggest battle of the War of the roses and who won?
Tountin and York wins
What town did Charles the bold start?
What King of France teams up with the Swiss Confederation? "The Spider"
Who taught theology at wittenburg in Saxony?
Who was the ruler of Saxony?
Frederick the wise
Who sold indulgences in Saxony as a traveling circus almost?
Martin wrote a number of things the church should consider changing and posted it to the church and the printing press got ahold of this and made thousands. What were these called?
The 95 Theses (1517)
Who was the split from catholicism and christianity a direct challenge to?
Luther was demanded to show up to a trial what was this place called?
The Diet of Worms
Who saved Martin Luther that allowed him to make the lutheran church?
Frederick the Wise
Who was the dutch scholar who said we have to go back to the original greek bible?
what was the peace of augsburg?
Lutherans right to exist
What was the Schmalkaldic League?
The protest of Luther
what was the augsburg confession and what word came from it?
Protestant - made all of the peasants sign it
What was Charles V's biggest victory where he got cocky and people pulled out troops from his army?
The Battle of Muhlberg
Where was Ulrich Zwingli from?
John Calvin was from _____, France.
Predestination was coined by ______?
Those chosen to go to heaven that are also the ones who should run the town?
who thought there was the same blood in both veins and arteries?
Who killed Michael Servetus because he didnt believe in the trinity?
Who spread calvanist to Scottland?
Who was against the reformation, married to cathering of aragon, and had a daughter named mary?
Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Crommwell were ________'s two main men?
Who Bribed people to create the anglican church?
Who didnt support Henry VIII and was killed by Henry VIII
Who wrote the English bible and was killed for it? Later on they ended up using his bible anyway
Henry VIII's son?
What was the new constitution for the church of england by Thomas Cranmer blends all diffrent religions
Who were the people from Zurich that were being executed and wouldnt fight back and they didnt baptise babies?
Who led the only Anabaptist that would fight back and where were they from?
John of Leiden and Munster
Who painted over privates?
Who found mexico and conquered the aztecs?
Who had the first circumnavigation of the world?
Who coined the name "The Americas"?
Who conquered Peru that was Cortez's cousin?
What was the Dutch Calvinists vs. Spanish Catholics called?
The Dutch Revolt
Who was the first political leader assasinated with a gun?
William the Silent
What was the biggest sea battle called?
Which queen said believe what you want but be quiet about it?
Phillip II Decided to invade England after ________ wouldnt marry him.
Who was a English soldier that killed tons of spanish and took their goods?
Sir Francis Drake
Who were the French Calvinists?
What was the royal family in france that was catholic and couldnt produce a son?
Who did the thrown go to after the valois' couldnt produce a son?
Henry from Bourbons marries Marguerite from Valois what happens?
Huguenots and Catholics dont get along (Saint Bartholemews Day Massacre)
King Henry IV switches to what religion to keep the peace?
What does Henry IV pass that allows huguenots to practice their religion and go to school but didnt allow them to work for gov't or join military
Edict of Nantes
Who puts politics before religion?
What was the first real modern war that started from a rebellion trying to make towns catholic?
The thirty years war
Defenestration prague was where? and what did this start
two men were thrown out of a window and fell over 70 feet and survived
What ended the thirty years war?
The peace of westphalia
The Calvinists, Lutherans, and the Catholics were apart of the first____ _____ _____?