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- acids, bases and salts dissolved in water conduct electricity (electrolytes)
- acids dissolve to produce H ions, bases dissolve to produce OH ions
- **All acids contain H, while all bases contain OH
any substance that donates proton(s) is and acid and anything that accepts prontons is a base.
*An acid is the electron pair acceptor; a base is the electron pair donor
6 common properties of acids
- 1. Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste
- 2. Acids change litmus paper from blue to red and change pH paper
- 3. Many acids react with an active metal to produce H2 gas in a single displacement reaction
- 4. Any acid & any base react to form water and a type of salt in a double displacement reaction
- 5. Many acids are electrolytes since they form pos & neg ions in solution w/ water
- 6. Most formulas for acids start with H
- contain 2 different elements (H and a more electrolyte element)
- Begin with "hydro", followed by the stem of the negative ion & ending with "ic"
Ternary acids (oxyacids)
- contain 3 elements- O2, H2, and usually a nonmetal
- Start with the stem of the nonmetal and end in "ic"
- 1 less O2 than common- ending is "ous"
- 2 less O2 than common, prefix "hypo" is added to the "ous" ending
- 1 more O2 than common- prefix "per" is added
6 common properties of bases
- 1. acqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
- 2. Change litmus paper from red to blue & change pH paper
- 3. Dilute solutions of bases feel slippery
- 4. Any base will react with any acid to form water and a salt. (double displacement and neutalization reactions)
- 5. Most bases are electrolytes since they form ions in acqueous solutions
- 6. Most bases have formulas that end in OH
what happens to strong acids and bases in acqueous solutions?
they ionize completely
strong bases in acqueous solution
- acts like an acid or a base
- a scale which measures the acidity or the basicity of a solution
- relates directly to the concentration of H30 in a given solution
- 0.0 (most acidic) - 14.0 (most basic)
- midpoint is 7, where solutions are neutral (water)
Naming organic acids
- usually carboxylic, which add to carboxyl group- C-OH or COOH
- Add the ending "oic acid" to the name of the hydrocarbon
Naming organic bases
- usually add to the amine group N-H or NH2
- Add the ending "amine" to the name of the hydrocarbon
oxides of nonmetals (SO2)
oxides of metals (Na2O)
acid + base -> H2O + a type of salt
when do salts form?
- an arrhenius acid and an arrhenius base react
- reaction of an acidic anhydride and a base
- reaction of a basic anhydride and an acid
- reaction of an acidic and basic anhydride
What ions do salts formed from reactions contain?
contain the positive ion of the base and the negative ion of the acid
When do you use ionic equations?
when reactions take place in water