Chemistry ch 23

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Chemistry ch 23
2011-05-16 16:54:53

Acids, Bases, & Salts
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  1. Arrhenius's theory
    • acids, bases and salts dissolved in water conduct electricity (electrolytes)
    • acids dissolve to produce H ions, bases dissolve to produce OH ions
    • **All acids contain H, while all bases contain OH
  2. Bronsted-Lowry theory
    any substance that donates proton(s) is and acid and anything that accepts prontons is a base.
  3. Lewis theory
    *An acid is the electron pair acceptor; a base is the electron pair donor
  4. 6 common properties of acids
    • 1. Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste
    • 2. Acids change litmus paper from blue to red and change pH paper
    • 3. Many acids react with an active metal to produce H2 gas in a single displacement reaction
    • 4. Any acid & any base react to form water and a type of salt in a double displacement reaction
    • 5. Many acids are electrolytes since they form pos & neg ions in solution w/ water
    • 6. Most formulas for acids start with H
  5. Binary acids
    • contain 2 different elements (H and a more electrolyte element)
    • Begin with "hydro", followed by the stem of the negative ion & ending with "ic"
  6. Ternary acids (oxyacids)
    • contain 3 elements- O2, H2, and usually a nonmetal
    • Start with the stem of the nonmetal and end in "ic"
    • 1 less O2 than common- ending is "ous"
    • 2 less O2 than common, prefix "hypo" is added to the "ous" ending
    • 1 more O2 than common- prefix "per" is added
  7. 6 common properties of bases
    • 1. acqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
    • 2. Change litmus paper from red to blue & change pH paper
    • 3. Dilute solutions of bases feel slippery
    • 4. Any base will react with any acid to form water and a salt. (double displacement and neutalization reactions)
    • 5. Most bases are electrolytes since they form ions in acqueous solutions
    • 6. Most bases have formulas that end in OH
  8. strongest base
    NaOH (lye/draino)
  9. what happens to strong acids and bases in acqueous solutions?
    they ionize completely
  10. strong acids
    • HCl
    • HClO4
    • HNO3
    • HBr
    • HI
    • H2SO4
  11. strong bases
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • Ca(OH)2
    • Ba(OH)2
  12. alkaline
    strong bases in acqueous solution
  13. weak acids
    • H3PO4
    • HF
    • H2CO3
    • HC2H3O2
  14. weak bases
    • NH3
    • Mg(OH)2
  15. amphoteric substance
    • acts like an acid or a base
    • H2O
  16. pH
    • a scale which measures the acidity or the basicity of a solution
    • relates directly to the concentration of H30 in a given solution
  17. hydronium ion
  18. pH scale
    • 0.0 (most acidic) - 14.0 (most basic)
    • midpoint is 7, where solutions are neutral (water)
  19. Naming organic acids
    • usually carboxylic, which add to carboxyl group- C-OH or COOH
    • Add the ending "oic acid" to the name of the hydrocarbon
  20. Naming organic bases
    • usually add to the amine group N-H or NH2
    • Add the ending "amine" to the name of the hydrocarbon
  21. without water
  22. acidic anhydrides
    oxides of nonmetals (SO2)
  23. basic anyhdrides
    oxides of metals (Na2O)
  24. neutralization reactions
    acid + base -> H2O + a type of salt
  25. when do salts form?
    • an arrhenius acid and an arrhenius base react
    • reaction of an acidic anhydride and a base
    • reaction of a basic anhydride and an acid
    • reaction of an acidic and basic anhydride
  26. What ions do salts formed from reactions contain?
    contain the positive ion of the base and the negative ion of the acid
  27. When do you use ionic equations?
    when reactions take place in water