bilogy chapter 23

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  1. Archae
    • ancient
    • live in extreme enviornments
    • similar to ones present millions of years ago
  2. methanogens
    • hydrogen+ carbon dioxide= methane gas
    • oxygen is poisonus to them

    • found in deep freshwater, marine mud
    • live in cows and termites
  3. halophiles
    • found in very high salt concentrations
    • great salt lake, dead sea
  4. thermoacidophiles
    • can survive in acidic and very high temperature enviornments
    • hot springs, black smokers, volcanic vents
  5. bacteria
    • bacilli- rod shaped
    • spirilla- spiral shaped
    • cocci- sphere/ round shaped
    • streptococci- grouped in chains
    • staphylococci- grouped in clusters
  6. Gram positve vs. gram negative
    • gram negative more complex
    • gram positive more peptidoglycan
    • gram negative red
    • gram postive purple
  7. cyanobacteria
    • carries out photosynthesis
    • earths first O2 producer
    • provide food for freshwater and marine ecosystems
  8. 2 functions of the cell wall
    • give shape and protects from toxic substances
    • plants contain cellulose
    • bacteria contain peptidoglycan
    • archeael bacteria contain pseudomurein
  9. prokaryotic DNA
    • one chromosome
    • circular
    • other forms of DNA: plasmids which are small and circular
  10. capsule
    • made of polysacharides
    • protect from drying, harsh chemicals, white blood cells
    • glycocalyx- fuzzy coat
    • allows bacteria to connect to surface
  11. pilli
    short hairlike proten on surface of some bacterias
  12. endospore
    • form in the inside of the cell
    • protects the DNA
    • can survive high temp. strong chemicals, radiation, drying
    • original cell dies
    • when conditions normal a new bacteria is born
  13. taxis
    movement toward or away from a stimulis
  14. flagella
    • whip like tail
    • other movements are possible
  15. Oxygen
    • obligate anaerobics- cannot tolerate O2
    • faculative anaerobics- can live with or without O2
    • obligate aerobs- must have O2
  16. temperature
    • psydophilic- cold loving
    • mesophiles- middle temps
    • thermophiles- hot loving
  17. reproduction
    binary fission
  18. pathology
    scientific study of diseases
  19. penicillin
    blocks ability to build new cell wall material
  20. main reason for anabiotic resistance?
  21. R plasmids
    • contain resistant genes
    • spread by transformation
  22. multiple resistance
    when an R plasmid confers resistance to several antibiotics at once

    consequence: many diseases that were once easy to treat are now becoming more difficult to treat
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bilogy chapter 23
2011-05-16 02:42:58

biology test
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