patho test 3

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patho test 3
2011-05-15 23:27:51
patho T3

chap. 19 and 20
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  1. This consists of inspired air then forceful expiration to remove irritant
  2. This type of pneumonia is caused by multiple bacteria
  3. This type of pneumonia produces yellow-green sputum
  4. Cause of legionnaire's disease
    gram (-) bacteria
  5. Cystic fibrosis is caused by
    chromosomal defect
  6. how does blood transport 70% of CO2?
    bicarbonate ions
  7. Name 2 ways O2 travels in blood
    Dissolved O2 and oxyhemoglobin (99%)
  8. Bacterial infection produces what kind of sputum?
    Yellow-green, cloudy, thick
  9. Pneumococcal pneumonia produces what kind of sputum?
  10. Thick, sticky, bloody sputum = what kind if infection?
    TB or cystic fibrosis
  11. Hemoptysis results in what kind of sputum?
    bright red bloody, frothy--pulmonary adema--
  12. Define "eupena"
    normal breathing rate
  13. how many inspirations per minute is the normal rate
  14. What are deep rapid inspirations called?
    kussmal respirations
  15. What are high pitched, crowing respirations called?
  16. Name and define 3 Respiratory disease breath sounds
    • Rales-light, bubbly, cracking
    • Rhonchu-deep, harsh (thick mucus)
    • Absence of breath-non-aeration, collapsed lung
  17. Define dyspnea
    SOB, sujective discomfort
  18. define orthopnea
    positional SOB(dyspnea)
  19. Defien cyanosis
    blueish tinge to ski due to lask of O2
  20. Define hypoxia
    inadequate O2 in CELLS
  21. deien hypoxemia
    inadequate O2 in BLOOD
  22. Most common cause of rhinitis-
  23. Pneumococci, streptococci, and haemophilius influenza cause what?
  24. symptoms of sinusitis include-
    nasal congestion, fever, sore throat, severe pain in facial bone
  25. Lobar pneumonia (pneumonococcal) is caused by
    streptococcus pneumoniae
  26. what arae the 2 stages of lobar pneumonia?
    • 1st stage- developmen of congestion
    • 2nd stage-consolidation
  27. lobar pneumonia signs/symptoms
    sudden onset, fever, chills, fatigue, pleuric pain w/splinting, rales heard over affected lobe, prodctive cough, typical rusty sputum
  28. may arise as nosocomial infection in institutions affecting persons with other lung diseases
    Legionnaire's disease
  29. cause a defect in exocrine glands that produce abnormally thick secretion
    cystic fibrosis
  30. cystic fibrosis is caused by-
    defective gene located on 7th chromosome
  31. blockage of ileum w/mucus at birth, salty skin, digestive dysfunction, chronic cough, frequent resp infections are signs/symptoms of-
    cystic fibrosis
  32. acute episodes, triggered by hypersensitivity reaction to inhaled antigens, family history of allergies
    extrinsic asthma (may end after adololescence)
  33. adult onset, hyper-responsive tissues in airways targeted
    intrinsic asthma (may people have both)
  34. drug resistant strains, 10% of infected develop active disease, many cases latent/undiagnosed
  35. no purulent exudate, aerobuc, slow growing bacillus w/resistant cell wall, primarily in lings but other organs can be infected
  36. infection occurs wen mocrobes invade the lungs causing local inflammatory response (peripheral upper lobes), bacilli cause hypersensitivity response, granuloma formation form tubercle
  37. lesions walled off by fibrous tissue hat has calcified-
  38. bacteria remain viavle but dormant, patient exposed and infected but active disease is not present and remains asymptomatic
    primary TB
  39. active infection insues, necrosis leads to cavitation, lg areas of lung tissue destroyed, hemoptysis are all pathophisiology of-
    Secondary TB
  40. transmission from inhalation of oral droplets, infection determined by Mantoux test
    Secondary TB
  41. Three forms of COPD-
    Emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitits
  42. characterized by destruction of alveolar walls and septae=lg permanently filled air spaces
  43. may be classified by location-distal alveoli (panacinar) or bronchiolar (centrilobular)
  44. air pollutants, genetic factor, and smoking contribute to etiology
  45. dyspnea, clubbed fingers, and barrel chest are signs and symptoms
  46. common signs of digestive disorders
    anorexia, nausea, vomiting
  47. frequent,loose watery stool, classified by volume, consistancy, smell and blood
  48. "fatty diarrhea" bulky, greasy, loose stols with fou odor
  49. red blood on surface of stool
    frank blood
  50. small hidden amounts of blood in stool(detected by testing)
    occult blood
  51. dark colored, tarry stool, bacteria causes dark color
  52. occurs most commonly in proximal duodenum, sinlge round cavaties w/ smooth margins
    peptic ulcer
  53. complications include hemorrhage, perforation, obstruction, epigastric burning
    peptic ulcer
  54. formation of masses od solid material tha formin bile aka gallstones
  55. refers to inflammation of gallbladder and cystic duct
  56. inflammation related to infection of bile ducts
  57. pertains to obstruction of the common bile duct by gallstones
  58. consist of cholesterol, bile pigments (billirubin) and calcium salts----white(crystalline-consist of cholesterol) or black (consist of billirubin)
    gall stones
  59. inflammation of liver due to local infection, systemic infection, chemical/drug toxicity, or idiopathic
  60. oral-fecal transmission(water and shell fish) outbreaks in day care centers, incubation 2-6 weeks, acute infection, vaccine available
    hepatitis A
  61. Caused by DNA virus with 3 antigens, carrier state is common, incubationof 2 months, transmitted ny blood and body fluids, vaccine available (formerly known as serum hepatitis)
    hepatitis B
  62. caused by single strand RNA virus, transmitted by blood and blood transfusions, carrier and chronic, no vaccine (formerly called non-A-non-B)
    hepatitis C
  63. caused by RNA virus and requires HBV fr replicaion, 2-10 week incubation
    hepatitis D
  64. caused by RNA virus (HEV), oral-fecal spread
    hepatitis E
  65. name the three stages of hepatitis
    • 1. preicteric (prodromal)
    • 2. Icteric (jaundice)
    • 3. posticteric (recovery)
  66. gamma globulin given early can lessen course, gradual liver destruction leading to cirrhosis and cancer may occur
  67. caused by hepatoxins, exposure may be sudden or long term, signs similar to viral infection
    non-viral(Toxic) hepatitis
  68. list four general categories of cirrhosis
    alcoholic liver disease, biliary cirrhosis, postnecrotic cirrhosis, metabloic storage disorders
  69. alcoholic liver disease is also known as
    portal cirrhosis
  70. list 3 stages of alcoolic cirrhosis
    • 1st-fatty liver(asymptomatic and reversible)fatty cells accumulate
    • 2nd-alcoholic hepatitis(irreversible)fibrous tissue forms
    • 3rd-(end-stage cirrhosis) fibrotic tissue replaces normal tissue
  71. 2 key apthophysiologic effects of cirrhosis are-
    loss of liver cell function, and interference with blood and bile flow by fibrous tissue
  72. fluid accumulation causing abdominal distension and pressure known as:
  73. reduction of bile secreted, back up to liver, blockageof blood flow(hemolysis), impaired digestion and absorption are what effects of cirrhosis?
    obstructive effects
  74. decreased removal f bilirubin and decreased production of bile, impaired idgestion and absorption, decreased production of plasma proteins, decreased removal of toxic substances
    functional effects of cirrhosis
  75. crohn's disease, lcerative colitis are:
    • chronic inflammatory bowel diseases
  76. crohn's disease is also known as:
    regional ileitis
  77. herniation or outpouching of mucosa in colon
  78. asymptomatic disease where multiple diverticula are present
  79. inflammation of the diverticula, common in western societies, in older adults