Card Set Information
First Test review
Regarding the mechanics of ventilation, what is the neutral pressure in the lungs between breaths?
760mm/HG or 1atm
What term is used when describing the diaphragm contracting and descends into the abdominal cavity?
What does the pressure drop down to in inspiration?
What term describes when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and air is exhaled from lungs?
What does the pressure in the lungs increase to during expiration?
What is the avgerage Tidal volume/breath?
What primarily controls breathing?
CO2 levels in the blood
How is rate and depth of respiration increases in response to increased levels of CO2?
Chemoreceptors in the Aortic Arch and cartoid sinuses
What two things are considered secondary control of respiration?
Chemoreceptors in the brain and periperheral nervous system sense in ventilartory drive
What can factors including anemia, pain, strong emotion, and hypoperfusion do for ventilation?
What are some signs and symptoms of Pulmonary disease?
Coughing, dyspnea,tachypnea, cynosis and chest pain
What is a primary assessment tool for pulmonary distress/disease?
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
What is usually measured in an Arterial blood sample?
pH, PaOs, and PaCO2
What does pH mean? What units is it measured?
Hydrogen Ion concentration
What does PaO2 mean? What units is it measured in?
Arterial Partial Pressure of O2
What does PaCO2 mean? What units is it measured in?
Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2
What does HCO3? What units is it measured in?
Serum bicarbonite concentration
What is the normal Hemoglobin (Hgb) range?
12-18 g/dL and varies with age and gender
What is central cynosis?
Caused by arterial blood desaturation and present blue/gray discolorization in the gums, under tounge, nail beds, and ears.
What is peripheral cynosis?
Occurs due to vasoconstriction in peripheral vasculature which is caused by cold, anxiety, circulatory failure.
What instrument is used for the non-invasive measurement of Arterial O2 Sats by means of infared and red light technology?
What are two exceptions for not receiving accurate O2 sats?
Carboxy Hemoglobin elevation (CO2 poisoning)
Methemoglobinemia (present in patients recevining Nitrates or Nitrites, or local anesthetics (Lidocaine)
What O2 sats indicate mild to moderate Hypoxemia
85-90% (PaO2 50 - 70 mm/Hg)
What O2 sats indicate signifigant Hypoxemia?
75-85% (PaO2 < 50mm/Hg)
What O2 sats indication severe Hypoxemia?
less than 75% (PaO2 < 40 mm/Hg)
What is the normal range for Arterial Hydro Ion Concentration (pH)?
What is normal range for Arterial Partial Pressure CO2 (PaCO2)?
What is the normal range for Arterial Partial Pressure O2 (PaO2)?
What is the normal range of Serum Bicarb Concentration (HCO3)?
What happens in Hypoxia?
Decrease of O2 pressure in the alveolus
What happens in Hypoxemia?
Decrease of O2 content in arterial blood
What is the formula to determine PaO2?
PaO2 = 104 - (0.27 x Patient Age)
Pulmonary Edema, Hypoventilation, COPD, and CO poisoning are all causes of _______?
What happens if pH < 7.35?
What happens if pH > 7.45?
In metabolic acidosis the HCO3 level _______.
In metabolic Alkalosis, the HCO3 level ______.
In respiratory acidosis, the CO2 levels ______.
In respiratory alkalosis, the CO2 levels _______.
If PaCO2 > 45, what is the result?
PaCO2 < 35, what is the result?
If HCO3 > 22, what is the result?
If HCO3 > 26, what is the result?
Renal failure, ASA overdose, and uncontrolled diarrhea are causes of ________.
Drug overdose, morbid obesity, pulmonary disease, and brain damage are causes of ______.
Sodium bicarb administration, excessive emisis, and hypokalemia are causes of ______.
Anxiety, pain, and heart disease are causes of ______.
What does Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) indicate?
Left Atrial Pressure
What does pressure gradiant between 2 systolic pressures indicate? Example: LV = 120 Ao = 80
What are normal critcal values for the Right Atrium?
a = 2.5-7mm/Hg
Mean = 0-8mm/Hg
What are normal critical values of the Right Ventricle?
Systolic = 15-25mm/Hg
Diastolic = 8-15mm/Hg
EDP = 0-8mm/Hg
What are normal critical values of Pulmonary Artery?
Systolic = 15-25mm/Hg
Diastolic = 8-15mm/Hg
Mean = 18mm/Hg
Are are crictial values of Wedge (PCWP)?
a = 4-16mm/Hg
v = 6-21mm/Hg
Mean = 4-12mm/Hg
What are critical values of the Aorta?
Systolic = 100-130
Diastolic = 60-90
Mean = 85
What are critical values of O2 Difference?
30-50 volume %
What is the critical value of Cardiac Output?
How is the critical value of Cardiac Index?
What are the critical values of PUlmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR)?
What are the critical values of Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)?
What is the difference between Rales and Bronchi?
Rales are crackling and Bronchi is wheezing
What can make a PulseOx reading inaccurate?
LED and detector oppose each other (not in line)