case studies for schizophrenia
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Gottesman and Shields (1982)
Meta analysis of early familial studies. Found that the % lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia for those who had two parents with schiz was 46.3%. For siblings it was 10.1 %.
Gottesman and Shields (1982) twin studies.
MZ concordance= 46% and DZ concordance= 14%
47 mothers with schiz, children were adopted within days by psychiatrically healthy mothers. Incidence of schizophrenia was 16%.
Pearlson et al (1993)
Post mortem studies have shown there are many more D2 receptors in the brains of those with schizophrenia than there are in normal brains
Seeman et al (1993)
Using PET scans, found 6 times the density of D4 receptors in the brains of people with schizophrenia
Nasrallah et al (1986)
Gender differences in the thickening of the corpus callosum in normal individuals are reversed in those with schizophrenia
Suddath et al (1990)
15 discordant MZ, only one had schizophrenia, were given MRI scans to look at any differences in brain structure. The twin with schiz had a smaller bilateral hippocampus and larger ventricles.
Slade and Bentall (1988)
Five factor model
Close and Garety (1998) FFM
Dispute hallucinations bringing relief from anxiety. Their research found there was an increase in anxiety after hallucinations.
Warner (1994) FFM
The fact that people only hallucinate what they already believe to exist is supported by cross-cultural studies.
Bentall et al (1991)
Paranoid and persecutory delusions are a psychological defence against depression and low self esteem. Maintained by attrubution bias.
Maher's Anomalous Experience Model (1974)
Same cognitive processes cause delusional and normal beliefs. Delusions act as mini theories and provide meaning. Mini theories are needed when things are unpredictable. Delusional explanations for unpredictable situations bring relief. Beliefs are judged delusional by others
Schizophrenia is a learned social role determined by labelling. An individual who breaks one or more of the residual rules is assigned mentally ill. Diagnosis creates a self fulfilling prophecy.
A group of eight pseudo patients pretended they could hear an unfamiliar voice that said 'emty', 'hollow' and 'thud'. All were admitted to the hospital, seven with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Patients behaved normally when admitted but their behaviour was deemed as schizophrenic- keepign a diary was put down to schizophrenic tendencies. They were hospitalised for between 7 and 52 days.
Brown et al (1958)
People with schiz who were discharged to return to parents or spouses fared worse than returning to lodgings.
Bebbington and Kuipers (1994)
Meta analysis. Measured proportion of EE families and average relapse rate. Relapse in high EE was 50% and 21% in low EE
Loebel et al (1992)
16% failed to respond to anti psychotic drug treatment within 12 months of first treatment.
Birchwood and Spencer (1999)
SST is effective in increasing patient's ability in social situations
25 patients who suffered hallucinations/delusions were interviewed. Details, emotional reactions and coping strategies. One third identified triggers, 75% reported distress. 75% disclosed coping strategies such as relaxation
Tarrier et al (1993)
Effectiveness of CSE in problem solving therapy. Randomly allocated to treatment conditions which involved 10 hour sessions. Both groups reported 50% improvement in positive symptoms.
Stein and Test (1980)
2 groups of 65; one inpatient care (control group), the other community care. First 12 months= 58 of control readmitted but only 12 in community care. When programme ended gains were lost.
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