Stress Management

Card Set Information

Stress Management
2011-05-16 13:48:28
Final Exam

Show Answers:

  1. Stress is defined as:
    • Demand made upon the adaptive capacities of the mind and the body
  2. Stress is a response to :
    Stressor which is the stimulus
  3. What is a stressor?
    It is anything a person percieves as a threat that causes and adaptation
  4. What are different types of stress?
    • Eustress-good stress which motivates
    • Distress-bad stress
  5. When we talk about stress most often we are reffering to?
  6. What does Yerkes-Dobson principle describe?
    It describes the relationship between stress and performance, a specific amout of stress is healthy,useful and beneficial
  7. What are the three aspects of stress? (CVR)
    • Personal view- Stress can be positive or negative
    • Reaction-to an event not the event itself which determines the positive or negative outcome
    • Capacity-strong capacity is positive
  8. What are sources of stress?
    • Time management
    • Personal expectation
    • Family
    • Relationship
    • Physical health
    • Finances
  9. What are daily hassels?
    Frustrating incidents that occur everyday.
  10. What is acute stress?
    It is short time, it appears suddenly, it disappears quickly and it is usually intense
  11. What is acute episodic stress?
    These people are always stressed out and can not get it together. They are over aroused , short tempered,irritable, anxious and tense.
  12. What is chronic stress?
    These are problems that dont go away such as debt, long term health problem and relationships
  13. How does chronic stress kill?
    It kills through suicide, heart attack and violence
  14. Health is defined as:
    More than just the absence of disease and more then physical health
  15. What are five dimensions of health?(PIESS)
    • Physical-cell, tissues and body systems
    • Intellectual-ability to think
    • Emotional-express or control feelings
    • Spiritual-principles and value giving meaning to us
    • Social- ability to relate and interact with others
    • These are all components of the hollistic health
  16. What can explain different reactions to stress?
    • Genetic variation
    • Life experiances
  17. Stress Assessment
  18. What is one tricky part when it comes to deal with stress?
    It is to determine what is really important and worthy of our energy
  19. When it comes to dealing with stress what factors are important?
    • The ability to control the stressful situation
    • How we percieve and cope with the stress is the determining factor
  20. When dealing with stress what are the personal vulnerabilities?
    • Genetics
    • Coping styles
    • Thinking styles
    • Environment
    • Social skills
  21. When measuring resting heart rate what are we using?
    Radia and cartoid
  22. What are the ways used to assess stress?
    • Resting heart rate
    • Breathing pattern
    • Respiration rate (# of breaths taken in one minute)
    • Stressometer
  23. What is PSS?
    It is a form of test used to see how different situations affect our feelings this test considers perception
  24. What is Ardell wellness?
    This is an assessment that incoorporates physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual and social aspect for balanced assessment.
  25. Student stress scale:
    Predicts likehood of disease
  26. The sience of stress
  27. What is stress response?
    It is a combination of action from nervous and endocrine system.
  28. What is the purpose of stress response?
    Protect human , promote survival and gives energy to run
  29. What is the function of the ANS?
    Invonuntary body functions
  30. What are the branches of ANS?
    • Sympathetic: initiates fight or flight
    • Parasympathetic:returts to homeostasis
  31. Fight or flight stage is:
    • Hyperarousal-flood of nervous system activity
    • Automatic anytime we percieve threat
    • It is about survival
    • Fight or flight depends on the stressor being surmountable or not
    • If it kept for long time can cause serious problems
  32. Homeostasis is :
    • Balance state of the body
    • After fight or flight exhaustion and fetigue must occur to return to homeostasis
  33. What part of the brain controls the ANS?
    Hypothalamus which is located in the diencephlon
  34. What hormones are released during fight/flight?
    • Epinephrine and norepi are released from the adrenal medulla
    • Cortisal is released from the cortex
  35. Stress response increases:
    • Mental activity
    • Heart rate
    • BP
    • Breathing
    • Oxygen intake
    • Fatty acid
    • Cholestrol
  36. The two different forms of stress response include:
    • Acute: strength, focus, speed , high performance
    • Chronic: disrupts almost all body processes and linked to illness
  37. What does GAS?
    It shows that how chronic stress affects the body
  38. GAS syndrome can cause:
    • Ulcers
    • Arthrisis
    • Hypertension
    • Arteroioscloresis
    • Diabetes
  39. What are the three stages of GAS?
    • Alarm: fight or flight
    • Resistance: stress response stays activated
    • Exhaustion: organs fail and body starts to break
  40. The mind and the body connection
  41. Stress response always :
    Starts with a single thought ( what is going on in mind determines what is happening to the body)
  42. What does psychological health encompass?
    It encompasses emotional and mental health which determines physical health.
  43. What are the top five health indicatiors in the US?(POMSS)
    • Mental health
    • Obesity
    • Smoking
    • Physical activity
    • Substance abuse
  44. What are direct affects of stress?
    Produces physiological changes in the body that lead to disease-relase of hormone during alarm stage
  45. What are indirect affects of stress?
    • Causes behavior that lead to disease
    • Alcohol use
    • Tobacco use
    • Caffeine consumption
  46. What are some conditions associated with medium term chronic stress?
    • Muscle tension
    • Headaches results from muscles that tighten longer then intended
    • Fatigue
    • Upset stomach
    • Insomnia
    • Bruxism-teeth grinding
    • Colds and sore throat
  47. Long term chronic stress causes:
    • CHD ( leading cause of death)
    • Ineffective immune system
    • Aging
    • Obesity
    • Ulcer
    • Insulin resistance
  48. What are some factors that can cause long term chronic stress?
    • Loneliness
    • Poverty
    • Bereavement
    • Depression
    • Frustration
  49. What is affected by increase in mental stress?
    • Demand for oxygen increases
    • Vascular resistance decreases
    • Blood clots more easily
    • Incrase in cortisol level cause inflamation and possibly heart attack
  50. Power of perception
  51. What is one major factor in preventing stress?
    Changing the way of thinking
  52. What is perception?
    • Cognitive or mental interpertation of the events
    • It is the most critical aspect of preventing distress
  53. What causes us to feel stress?
    How we perceive
  54. What causes the fight or flight response to start?
    • Perception of an event
    • ** THE event itself does not cause distress
  55. What is self.induces stress?
    • It is caused by imagination
    • May not be based in reality( it has not happend)
    • We do it ourselves
  56. POPP formula for prevention includes:
    • Point-time when your thought innitiate
    • Positive-thought to respond to an event
    • Perception-will stop stress
    • Prevented-unhealthy stress
  57. What is cognition?
    Meantal process of thinking and reasoning
  58. What are the purpose of cognitive functioning?
    • Rationality
    • Good judgment
    • Learning new skills
    • Interperting the world
    • Allowing individuals react differently to the same situation
  59. Hardiness is:
    • Sum of 3 personality traits that assess ability to perceive events positively
    • Commitment-potential stressor seen as interesting or meaningful
    • Control-self efficacy
    • Challange- is seen as oppurtunity to grow
  60. Locus of control:
    Ways we ascribe our chances of success which can be internal or external
  61. Internal locus of control:
    People view themselves as responsible for outcomes of actions
  62. External locus of control:
    People view what happens to them as unrelated to their own behavior
  63. Cognitive Appraisal is :
    Interpertation of stressor ( deciding factor)
  64. Cognitive restructuring:
    Changing the meaning of an interpertation
  65. Cognitive distortion:
    Perception become distorted and magnified out of perportion
  66. Thinking and Choosing
  67. Cognitive distortion :
    • when things are blown out of perportion
    • All or nothing thinking-good or bad nothing in between
    • Personalizing(needless guilt)-assume responsibility for things that are out of your control
    • Discounting the positive-not accepting compliments
    • Assuming the worst- awfulizing
  68. What are thinking errors?
    • These are common to our culture
    • Inaccurate
    • Irrational
    • Cause unwanted stress
    • Can lead to health problems
  69. What are right thinking behaviors?
    • Accept shades of gray
    • Don't take things personally
    • Accentuate the positive
    • Accept compliments
    • Assume the best
    • See the best in others
    • Refuse to worry
    • Believe in your ability in controlling emotions
  70. What is the ppurpose of cognitive therapy?
    It is to increase self esteem and increase hope for the future
  71. What are the ways to overcome distorted thinking?(PTPG)
    • Positive self talk
    • Thought stopping
    • Power language which helps boost feelings of control
    • Go with the flow
  72. What are factors associated with conditioned response?
    • We are conditioned to respond in certain ways to events in our environment
    • This becomes automatic
    • Most people are conditioned
    • Can be good
    • Can be limiting
    • ** if someone yells bad things at us we get angry
    • When some car cuts us off in the road
    • Falling sleep in a boring class
  73. What are the two levels of responding to different events?
    • Effective responding: (GODA)gratitude,allowance,discovery,observation
    • (RABJ)Ineffective:Resistance,judgement,blaming, attatchment
  74. Managing emotions
  75. What are the emotions that can increase risk for disease?
    Anger and fear
  76. Fear is associated with... and anger is associated with...
  77. What are the two emotions associated with every stressor we percieve?
    Guilt and worry
  78. What is definition of guilt?
    Preoccupation with undesireable thoughts and behaviors from the past(self anger and self talk)
  79. Worry is :
    Manifestation of fear , it does not cause physiological or psychological changes but leads to anxiety
  80. Worry is :
    focus of the events of the future and things that have not happend yet, this is the thinking part of the anxiety
  81. Anxiety is:
    Physiological and psychological response to worry
  82. What are the ways that can be used to manage worry?
    • Most things we worry about are out of our control
    • Worry is not caring
    • Worry is not planning
    • Most worries never happen
    • Worry is a habit
  83. What is the most potent stressful emotion?
  84. Fear is:
    Escalated state of worry
  85. What are various types of fear:
    • Change
    • Pain
    • Specific things
    • Unknown
    • Death
  86. What are some factors associated with fear?
    • It can motivate a positive action
    • Nothing is inherently fearful
    • Fear is a conditioned response
  87. What is comfort zone?
    • It is a place, situation , relationship or experiance that is non threatening and it is safe and controlable.
    • Here there is no growth progress or development
  88. What is discomfort zone?
    Naturally avoided and it is uncomfortable which is why usually there is no gravitation towards it , however it allows growth and progress . This usually involves overcoming some type of fear.
  89. How can fear be controlled?
    • We have to admit that we are afraid
    • Confront our fear
    • Do it three times
    • Call it something else as you confront it.
  90. What is the underlying of all the factors that causes us fear?
    Is the lack of trust in our ability to handel something
  91. Anger is :
    A temporary emotion experienced by everyone at diferent degrees
  92. What are differet types of anger:
    • Jealousy
    • Rage
    • Annoyance
    • Irritation
    • Blaming
    • Frustration
    • Guilt
  93. We get angry because:
    We did not get our way
  94. Hostility is:
    attitude motivated by hatefullness , it is an anger that is projected outward at something or someone and it is very good predictior of a heart attack.
  95. Importance of value
  96. Value is :
    • A belief upon which one acts by preference
    • Guids our actions
    • Gives meaning and direction to life
    • Things we think are important
    • Are dynamic
  97. What are the two types of values:
    • Instrumental (personal characteristics and traits-hard working,effective and open minded)
    • Terminal values(outcomes, self esteem and independence)
  98. What does understanding values mean?
    • Knowing values
    • learn to live by them
    • ** allows for inner peace and decreased stress
  99. What does Dharma(buddhism) suggest?
    • Everyone has a specific place and purpose
    • The key is to find your place and space
    • Result will be satisfaction
    • If you try to occupoy some other persons place you will be unhappy so >get in your lane and stay in it.
  100. Cognitive dissonace is :
    Stress caused by holding contradictory feelings, this occurs when our behavior is not consistent with our values
  101. What is niagara syndrome?
    This occurs when we try to fololw someone else's perfect way of life. this emphisises on the importance of knowing who you are and what you nelieve in
  102. Where are the values come from?
    • Culture
    • Parents
    • Families
    • Teachers
    • Friends
    • Media
    • Environment
  103. What is culture?
    It is a pattern of learned behavior based on values, beliefs and perceptions of the world.
  104. How are valued acquired?
    • Coose freely
    • Choose among alternative
    • Carefully consider each alternative
    • Prize and cherish your decided value
    • Publically affirm
    • Act upon your value
    • Repeat your value action( pattern)
  105. Spirituality
  106. What is the definition of spirituality?
    It is a process that describes a belief in an devotion to a higher power beyond physical realm and it is concerned with value we hold most dear.
  107. Spirituality is :
    • Heart of stress management
    • Purpose to life
    • Meaning to life
    • Broader prespective
    • Can buffer stress
    • Prevent defeat from crisis
  108. Why do we seek spirituality?
    • All humans have spiritual aspect
    • Tired of seeking pleasure through material gain
    • Can't buy enough to bring peace
    • Sex, drugs has not filled the void
  109. What are spiritual dimentions of humans?
    • Seek hormony with the universe
    • Tries to answer infinite
    • It goes beyond religious affiliation
    • Goes outside person's power
    • Especially focused when faced with emotional stress
  110. What is the difference between spirituality and religion?
    • Spirituality is a process and essence of life principle, it is a belief that relates a person to the world, it is a way of giving meaning to existance and it is a sense of connection with igher power.
    • Religion is an adherence to a set of beliefs outlined by an organized entity, embraces specific religious beliefs and incorporates them into their world view, one way that people operate in spiritual dimension
  111. What are qualities of spiritual health?
    • Sense of meaning and purpose
    • Faith in god or higher power
    • Connection to others
    • Commassion for others
    • Participation in spiritual behavior
  112. What are types of higher powers?
    • God(christian)
    • Prana(hindu)
    • Chi(chinese)
    • The great spirit(native americans)
    • Tao(taoist)
  113. Time management
  114. Time :
    Occurance of events in sequance which is an omnipresent factor in out lives, how we spend our time determines our level of satisfaction
  115. What is time management?
    It is a manner in which we control the sequance of events in our lives
  116. What is pareto's law?
    It says that 80% of the value from any activity can result from 20% effort.
  117. What are things to consider when time management?
    • What are highest priorities
    • Which one do I value most
    • What can I do about my highest priorities
    • When will I do these things
  118. What are different methods of time management?
    • ABC-123 planing
    • Quadrant planing( most popular)
    • Life balance
  119. What is life balance?
    Balance of planning and going with the flow
  120. What are the factors to consider with life balance?
    • Does it matter in 10 years
    • What do I need more of in my life
    • What do I need less
    • How can I make things simpler
  121. What are different types of procrastination?
    • Perfectionis- can't compelete a task
    • Dreamer-Big goals but fail to transfer
    • Worrier-assume worst case
    • Crisis maker-wait until the pressure mounts
    • Over-doers- make the job harder than it looks
  122. How can we overcome procrastination?
    • Work hardest during best times of the day
    • Choose to refuse
    • Do the msot unpleasent task first
    • Reward your self
  123. Serendipity :
    Describes quality that through good fortune and sagiity allowes a person to discover something good.
  124. Introduction to relaxion
  125. What do we need to keep in mind when trying to manage stress?
    • Stress is inevitable and it is going to happen
    • Stress response is automatic
    • The key is to avoid unnecessary distress and turn of the response as early as you can
  126. What are the technique used in managing stress?
    • Cognitive: guided imagery, meditation, autogenics
    • Physical : massage , yoga and progressive relaxation
  127. Definitions of relaxation:
    • Oxford-Free from tension and anxiety
    • Benson-Free from anxiety and skeletal tension
    • Olpin-Process of effectively moving the mind/body from stress to relaxation
  128. What are the requirements for relaxation?
    Commitment and action
  129. What is the purpose of relaxation?
    It is to activate the parasympathetic nervous system
  130. Relaxation is not:
    • Watching TV
    • Reading a book
    • Daydreaming
    • Sleeping
  131. What are sensations associated with relaxation:
    • Warmth
    • tingling
    • Coolness
    • Floating
    • Swirling
    • Spining
    • Heaviness
    • Numbness
    • Lighthead
  132. What are benefits of relaxation?
    • Reduce heart rate
    • Reduce blood pressure
    • Reduce neef for oxygen
    • Slow breathing
    • Increased blood flow to the muscles
    • Reduced muscle tenstion
    • Fewer illnesses
    • Fewer emotional responses
    • More energy
    • More efficient
    • Better concentration
    • Better able to handel prblems
  133. What is power nap and what are the benefits?
    • It combines yoga, mindfullness and deep breathing
    • It cause an immidiate increase in energy, increased ability to focus and feelings of rejuvination
  134. What is the main purpose of breathing?
    Supply body with oxygen and it is the interaction between the voluntary and involuntary nervous system
  135. What are different methods of breathing?
    • Diaphragmic(abdominal) it is the deeper breathing that activates the PNS
    • Thorasic breathing(chest breathing) shallow breathing that occurs during stress, it increases respiration rate
  136. Why is breathing used as a relaxation technique?
    • allows the mind and the body to slow
    • Energizes the body
    • develops harmony
    • sends message eto NS that there is no therat
    • Vital healing tech
    • ** treatment for respiratory disease
  137. What are different breathing exercises?
    • Simple: immidiate abdomin
    • Reduced respiration: reduce breathing
    • Restful: focused breathing , for event or interview or test
    • Alternating nostril: left/calmness, right/energy
    • Full breathing
    • Visual
    • Command
    • Ujjayi: associated with yoga
    • Breathing while stretching: targets the whole body
  138. Autogenics:
    • Self directed relaxation using suggestions to create feelings of warmth and heaviness
    • It requires passive alertness and less mental will
  139. What is the differene between autogenics and hypnisis ?
    Autogenics is self directed , whereas hypnosis uses a suggestion that the mind believes is true or accurate
  140. What is hypnosis used for?
    • Change how people think
    • Help them change behavior
  141. What are the benefits of autogenics?
    • Reduction in heart rate
    • Blood pressure
    • Tensiton
    • Migrane headaches
    • Insomnia
    • Post trumatic stress disorder
  142. Yoga
  143. What is the definition of yoga?
    A course of exercise and posture intended to promote control of the body and mind and attain physical and spiritual well being. it means to join and yoke together
  144. What are yoga sutras?
    • Yama- restraint,violance, lie,steal
    • Niama-observance,purity,contentment,tolorance
    • Asana-exercise
    • Pranayama-breathing
    • Pratyahara-prepration
    • Dharana-concentration
    • Dyhana-meditation
    • Samadhi-absorption
  145. What is hatha yoga?
    the asana,pranayama,pratyahara
  146. What are benefits associated with yoga?
    • Increase in physical and mental health
    • Treatment for fetigue and loss of sleep
    • Increase the health of unconscious mind
    • Decrease disturbing thoughts
    • Help adress negative memories
    • Help deal with stress
  147. What are benefits of yoga and disease symptoms?
    • addiction
    • AIDs
    • arthritis
    • Chronic fatigue
    • PMS
    • Depression
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Pain management
    • Weight management
  148. What are different yoga styles?
    • Iyengar-starter
    • Ashtanga-power/athletes
    • Kundalini-purify
    • Bikram-Hot room
    • Kiripalue-spontanious/meditation oriented
    • Sivandanda-series
  149. Social suport
  150. Very happy people are:
    • Highly social
    • Stronger romantics
    • Extroverted
    • More agreeable
  151. What is social support?
    It is a feeling of belonging,being accepted,feeling loved and being needed
  152. What are different types of social support?
    • Instrumental- money , use of a car, place to stay
    • Emotional-building esteem,love,trust,concern
    • Informational support- advice,suggesetion,direction
    • Appraisal-affirmation,feedback
  153. What are the common relationship stressors?
    • Power
    • Children
    • Money
    • Division of responsibilities
    • SEx
  154. Gary chapman love languages?
    • word of affirmation
    • quality time
    • reciving gifts
    • act of service
    • physical touch
  155. What are the two different types of listening?
    • Autobiographical
    • Empathetic
  156. What are different styles of conflict resolution?
    • Avoidance
    • Accomidating
    • Competing
    • Compromising
    • Colaborate