M2 Forensics

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  1. What are the 4 DNA Isolation techniques?
    • Chelex
    • QiaAmp
    • Organic
    • Differential
  2. What is DNA isolation?
    A technique used to extract and separate DNA only from other cell components and foreign materials
  3. What is Chelex Extraction used for and how does it work?
    • Very small samples
    • Uses chemical beads, chelex, that collect and bind all non-DNA materials
    • Not good for RFLP
  4. What is QiaAmp Extraction?
    • Silica column bases method
    • Cell/nucleus is lysed and rinsed
  5. What is organic extraction?
    Need Large Sample, but maintain quality and quantity better
  6. What is differential extraction?
    A technique to isolate DNA from other cell samples mixed with sperm cells
  7. What is reverse dot blot PCR?
    Probes are immobilized on a strip and PCR samples are added to the strip
  8. What are the 3 steps of PCR?
    • Denature
    • Anneal
    • Extend
  9. What is the marker specific to male DNA?
  10. What things can degrade DNA?
    • UV light
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Chemicals
  11. What is star activity?
    Non stringent condition for performance of specific enzyme
  12. What is stochastic fluctuation?
    Unequal representative of alleles due to sampling errors
  13. What is Preferential amplification?
    • One allele is amplified more than the other (looks homozygous)
    • Allelic dropout
  14. What is a heteroplasmy?
    Mixture of samples in a single source
  15. What is the purpose of DNA typing?
    To identify if a person is the source of biological evidence
  16. What are two typing systems for profiling?
    • Detecting continuous alleles (RFLP)
    • Detecting discrete alleles (PCR)
  17. What are the 3 ways samples show genetic concordance?
    • Samples are from the same source
    • Coincidence (2 people have the same genetic profile for a particular marker)
    • Error in collection and handling of sample
  18. What two genetic models do we use to estimate allele frequency?
    • Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    • Linkage Equilibrium
  19. What does the frequency estimate?
    • The evidence profile, not the suspect profile
    • The evidence profile is then matched
  20. What are the steps used in estimating profile frequency?
    • Population studies (collect data)
    • Frequency is tested for departure from H-W and LE
    • Calculate Genotype frequency
    • Calculate frequency by multiplication of loci
  21. Why is it necessary to establish the DNA databank?
    Repeat offenders
  22. What is the difference between a databank and database?
    • bank- all information about the offender and process of handling the case
    • base- part of the databank
  23. What is required for successful Databank?
    • Legislation
    • Sample collection
    • Sample analysis
    • Establishing a database for analyzed data
Card Set
M2 Forensics
Test Two DNA forensics (chapter 6-9)
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