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A. Attacks from Corsairs:
- In 1595, Sir Frances Drake from England attacked PR and who also had a bigger army. The troops of La Forteleza frustrated the attack but did not succeed.
- In 1598, George Clifford from England attacked PR who arrived in Condado & reached San Juan. Clifford left due to an epidemic.
- In 1625, Balduino Enrico from Holland attacked PR and who also stole & burned cities. Civilians were the ones who fought the most.
B.Products Exchanged in Contraband:
- Imports: tools, slaves, fabric, cheese, and wine
- Exports: ginger, cocoa, tobacco, wood, and sugar
C. Main Enemies of Spain:
D. Limitations of Sugar Production:
- frequency of the commercial boats
- sugar would get rotten quick
- other colonies started exporting sugar
- landowners were bankrupt
E. Benefits of Ginger as Main Export
- easy to grow
- not much land needed
- needed less slaves (cheaper)
F. Forts of PR
- Palacio de Santa Catalina--> La Fortaleza
- Fortín San Gerónimo del Boquerón
- Castillo San Felipe del Morro
- Fortín San Juan de la Cruz
- Fuerte San Cristobal
- Murallas de San Juan
G. Reforms Introduced by the Borbon Family
- eliminate the economical and political independence of the territories
- centralize the power in the monarchy
- reorganize the army
- to make official the collection of taxes
- hired employees according to their talent, efficiency, and loyalty
H. Explanation of O’Reilly Report
- He saw the population was spread out
- The government couldn’t control how people acted
- There was an increase of contraband
- Puerto Ricans were lazy
- People did not pay taxes
I. Changes to PR’s Miltitia
- reorganized the miltia
- officials were named
- people received daily training
- blacks could join, increasing the amount of people
- became known as disciplined militia
- restore forts and walls in San Juan
J. Last Attack to PR
- When? April 1797
- Who? Admiral Henry Harvy and Captain Ralph Abercromby from England
- Where? the coast of Cangrejos which is now Piñones, part of Santurce, and part of Loíza and was land attack
- Who defended? Creoles of Cangrejos and blacks for land and way of life
- How? Entered by land and establish a operation center in which to use element of surprise
K. Ways How the O'Reilly Report Affected PR
- Organized the military defense
- Made PR participate in exportation economy of sugar
- PR was allowed to trade with other colonies
L. Inconvenience of Implementing the Real Cédula de 1778
- There wasn't an inventory of farm property or exactly who owned the land.
- Most of the land was for raising cattle and not for agriculture.
- The monarchy wanted to destroy the hatos which created legal problems.
M. French Revolution
- Year: 1789
- Leader: Napoleon Bonaparte
- Cause: The French raised taxes.
- Effects: PR got the ideas of having a revolution of it's own.
N. Haitian Revolution
- Year: 1804
- Leader: Toussaint L'Orveture
- Cause: Haitian Slaves began to rebel, took over plantations and killed landowners. Also hard work.
- Effect: Spaniards become afraid of other slave reveling so they made harsher punishments for slave rebellions.
O. How Spaniards Prevented Slave Rebellions
- Harsher punishments
- Watched slaves more carefully
- Banned news coming from Haiti
- Stopped every single rebellion before it got out of control
P. Contributions of Ramón Power y Giralt
- Represented PR
- Became vice president of the Parliament
Q. Cuba's Independent Movement
- Guerra de los 10 años (1868-1878)
- Guerra Chiquita (1879-1880)
- Grito de Baires (Feb. 23, 1895) - got independence
R. Changes Brought by the Carta Autonómica
there is now a parliament with 2 houses (Senate and Representatives) with a general governor who represent the metropolis and would have main control
S. Explosion of Maine
Began a war between US and Spain in which the end PR become a possession of US (Hispanic American War)
T. Puerto Rican Invasion by General Miles
- He went through Guánica to get to know land.
- He made illusion of coming in peace by offering a lot of promises to the PRicans.
U. Reasons why US Gave us the American Citizenship:
- WWI was going on.
- US needed more soldiers.