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  1. A. Attacks from Corsairs:
    • In 1595, Sir Frances Drake from England attacked PR and who also had a bigger army. The troops of La Forteleza frustrated the attack but did not succeed.
    • In 1598, George Clifford from England attacked PR who arrived in Condado & reached San Juan. Clifford left due to an epidemic.
    • In 1625, Balduino Enrico from Holland attacked PR and who also stole & burned cities. Civilians were the ones who fought the most.
  2. B.Products Exchanged in Contraband:
    • Imports: tools, slaves, fabric, cheese, and wine
    • Exports: ginger, cocoa, tobacco, wood, and sugar
  3. C. Main Enemies of Spain:
    • France
    • England
    • Holland
  4. D. Limitations of Sugar Production:
    • frequency of the commercial boats
    • sugar would get rotten quick
    • other colonies started exporting sugar
    • landowners were bankrupt
  5. E. Benefits of Ginger as Main Export
    • easy to grow
    • not much land needed
    • needed less slaves (cheaper)
  6. F. Forts of PR
    • Palacio de Santa Catalina--> La Fortaleza
    • Fortín San Gerónimo del Boquerón
    • Castillo San Felipe del Morro
    • Fortín San Juan de la Cruz
    • Fuerte San Cristobal
    • Murallas de San Juan
  7. G. Reforms Introduced by the Borbon Family
    • eliminate the economical and political independence of the territories
    • centralize the power in the monarchy
    • reorganize the army
    • to make official the collection of taxes
    • hired employees according to their talent, efficiency, and loyalty
  8. H. Explanation of O’Reilly Report
    • He saw the population was spread out
    • The government couldn’t control how people acted
    • There was an increase of contraband
    • Puerto Ricans were lazy
    • People did not pay taxes
  9. I. Changes to PR’s Miltitia
    • reorganized the miltia
    • officials were named
    • people received daily training
    • blacks could join, increasing the amount of people
    • became known as disciplined militia
    • restore forts and walls in San Juan
  10. J. Last Attack to PR
    • When? April 1797
    • Who? Admiral Henry Harvy and Captain Ralph Abercromby from England
    • Where? the coast of Cangrejos which is now Piñones, part of Santurce, and part of Loíza and was land attack
    • Who defended? Creoles of Cangrejos and blacks for land and way of life
    • How? Entered by land and establish a operation center in which to use element of surprise
  11. K. Ways How the O'Reilly Report Affected PR
    • Organized the military defense
    • Made PR participate in exportation economy of sugar
    • PR was allowed to trade with other colonies
  12. L. Inconvenience of Implementing the Real Cédula de 1778
    • There wasn't an inventory of farm property or exactly who owned the land.
    • Most of the land was for raising cattle and not for agriculture.
    • The monarchy wanted to destroy the hatos which created legal problems.
  13. M. French Revolution
    • Year: 1789
    • Leader: Napoleon Bonaparte
    • Cause: The French raised taxes.
    • Effects: PR got the ideas of having a revolution of it's own.
  14. N. Haitian Revolution
    • Year: 1804
    • Leader: Toussaint L'Orveture
    • Cause: Haitian Slaves began to rebel, took over plantations and killed landowners. Also hard work.
    • Effect: Spaniards become afraid of other slave reveling so they made harsher punishments for slave rebellions.
  15. O. How Spaniards Prevented Slave Rebellions
    • Harsher punishments
    • Watched slaves more carefully
    • Banned news coming from Haiti
    • Stopped every single rebellion before it got out of control
  16. P. Contributions of Ramón Power y Giralt
    • Represented PR
    • Became vice president of the Parliament
  17. Q. Cuba's Independent Movement
    • Guerra de los 10 años (1868-1878)
    • Guerra Chiquita (1879-1880)
    • Grito de Baires (Feb. 23, 1895) - got independence
  18. R. Changes Brought by the Carta Autonómica
    there is now a parliament with 2 houses (Senate and Representatives) with a general governor who represent the metropolis and would have main control
  19. S. Explosion of Maine
    Began a war between US and Spain in which the end PR become a possession of US (Hispanic American War)
  20. T. Puerto Rican Invasion by General Miles
    • He went through Guánica to get to know land.
    • He made illusion of coming in peace by offering a lot of promises to the PRicans.
  21. U. Reasons why US Gave us the American Citizenship:
    • WWI was going on.
    • US needed more soldiers.
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