Reticular Formation S2M1

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Reticular Formation S2M1
2011-08-11 09:52:02
Ross S2M1

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  1. What portion of the brain controls the same behaviors and functions that we share with all other vertebrates
    Reticular formation
  2. What is the general function of the lateral zone of the reticular formation
    Sensory function and afferent input
  3. What is the general function of the medial zone of the reticular formation
    Motor functions and efferent output
  4. In general what is the midbrain section of the reticular formation used for
    Brain functions
  5. In general what is the Pontine and Medullary portion of the Reticular formation used for
    Spinal cord functions
  6. What are the main functions that the Reticular formation is central to
    • Conciousness
    • Sleep/Wake cycle
    • Pain Modulation
    • Motor functions
    • Autonomic regulation
    • Diffuse modulatory systems
  7. The reticular formation is critical in keeping the brain from multitasking, how
    • It places the brain in a mode of operation per say, and can't focus on any other modes at the same time
    • Ex. Sleep, Eat, Drink, Fight, Mate, ect...
  8. The reticular formation has what type of pathways involved
    • Autonomic
    • Sensory
    • Motor
    • Cojugate horizontal eye movement
    • Alertness
    • Sleep
    • Diffuse Modulatory systems
  9. The autonomic functions of the Reticular formation receive inputs from what cranial nerves
    Glossopharyngeal (IX) and Vagus (X)
  10. The modulation of BP, Heart beat, and respiration are mediated through what nucleus to the Reticular formation
    Solitary Nucleus
  11. The combination of the reticulospinal tracts (inhibitory and excititory) modulate
    Muscle tone and posture
  12. What are the two descending pathways of the Autonomic functions of the reticular formation
    • Inhibitory
    • Excitatory
    • (Reticulospinal tracts)
  13. What are the main structures along with their signal that the Reticular formation receives sensory inputs from
    • Spinal cord (Pain Temp)
    • Cranial Nerves (Direct sensory)
    • Limbic structures (Secondary sensory)
    • Superior Colliculus (Secondary sensory)
  14. What is the indirect path that the Reticular Formation can use to send sensory signals to the Cerebral Cortex
    • Parvocellular Nuclei of Pons and Mudulla
    • Magnocellular Nuclei of Pons and Medulla
    • Thalamus
    • Cerebral Cortex
  15. What is the direct path that the Reticular formation can use to send sensory signals to the Cerebral Cortex and what signals are a large part of this
    • Parvocellular nuclei of Pons and Medulla
    • Diffuse Modulatory Systems
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • (Vision and Smell are a large part of this)
  16. What is the path of the Reticulospinal Tract
    • Primary motor cortex
    • Magnocellular Reticular Formation
    • Spinal cord
    • Excitatory output from Pontine RF
    • or
    • Inhibitory from Medulla RF
  17. Conjugate horizontal eye movement uses what pathway
    • Vestibular
    • Eyes move to the opposite side of the head rotation
  18. What tract of the Reticular formation does not work during a coma, and what is its function
    • Ascending Reticular Activation System (ARAS)
    • It is used for alertness, afferents from all sensory systems
  19. How does the reticular formation act as a filter
    It takes out sounds that are repetitive and not meaningful so as to focus on important sounds (Salient Sounds)
  20. Neuromodulation
    Small group of neurons that diffuse neurotransmitters through large brain areas. This can be thought of as salt in a soup compared to the meat and potatoes floating in it
  21. Diffuse Modulatory Systems (DMS) transmit signals how
    • Neurons of the DMS from the RF project directly to the cortex and throughout the whole brain
    • Signals are released from space between neurons (beyond the traditional synapse)
    • The Neurotransmitters are not absorbed quickly
  22. What are the different Diffuse Modulatory Systems (DFS) of the Reticular Formation
    • Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) system
    • Serotonin system
    • Cholinergic system
    • Dopamine system
  23. What is the origin and effect of the Noradrenaline system
    • Origin: Locus Coeruleus and Lateral Tegmental Field
    • Effect: Arousal, and reward system
  24. What is the origin and effect of the Serotonin system
    • Origin: Raphe Nucleus
    • Effects: Modulation of mood, satiety, body temp, sleep, and nociception
  25. What is the origin and effect of the Cholinergic system
    • Origin: Pedunculopontine nuclei of the midbrain
    • Effects: Learning, Short term memory, arousal, and reward
  26. What is the origin and effects of the Dopamine system
    • Origin: Midbrain cortical pathway
    • Midbrain limbic pathway (tegmental area)
    • Effects: Motor system, reward system, cognition, endocrine system, nausea
  27. The Dopamine diffuse modulatory system invloves what specific midbrain section
    Substantia Nigra