What are the seven responsibilities of a health care educator?
Assess: plan an assessment, collect health related data
Plan health education:develope goals and objectives,select or design strategies for intervention
Implement:impelement a plan of action,monitor impelementaition
Evaluate: develop plan for evaluation, design data collection intstruments
Administer: manage resources, obtain accptance(door prizes and facility)
Serve as a resource:disseminate health related information
Advocate:assess and prioritize health information, deliver messages using variaty of methods.
What is healthy people 2020 based on ?
It is based on the accomplishments of the 4 previous HP
1979-the surgon general
1990- promoting health/preventing disease
2000-national health promotion
What is the key component of healthy people 2020?
What are the goals of HP2020?
Attain a high quality longer lives
Achieve health equity and eliminate health disparities
Create social and physical environment that promotes good health
What are determinants of health?
Health care delivery
Health field concept?
suggests that there are four concepts that make up the health field and contribute to health and wellness or diease
What are two skills that are important to the health educatiors?
Health promotion programing
What is a key factor in establishing relationship between researchers and the community?
What is community organizing?
Process through which communities are helped to ID common problems or goals, moblize their resources(vendors),develope and implement strategies for reaching goals(posters) these goals are collectively set.
What are assumptions used for community organizing?
Communities can develop the capacity to deal with their own problems
People want to change and can change
People should participate in making, adjusting or controlling major changes taking place
Change that is self imposed has meaning and permanance
A holistic approach is better then fragmented
Democracy needs cooperative participation
People must learn necessary skills,communities may need help organizing to address their needs.
what are different methods of community organizing?
Locality development-self help method, process oriented,consensus building, build group ID and sense of community
Social planning: may people are involved, needs skilled volunteers,focus on problem solving(rational,empirical,task oriented)
Social action: involves redistribution of power and resorces, tas and process oriented allows community change
What are the ten step approaches to the community organizing?
Recoganize the issue(topic)-a problem exists and something must be done. Organized bottom up/grass root or top down
Gain entry to the community: learn about community before approaching the gate keepers
Organize the people: obtain support from who are interested, those affected by the problem, ID a leader, recruit additional community memebers.
Assess the community
Determine priorities and set goals
Arrive at solution and select intervention strategy
Evaluate the outcomes
Maintain outcomes over time
Loop back and modify plans as required
What is community building?
It is strenght based rather than need based
It involves mapping communities capacity(ID communities assets)
Difference between this and CO is the different type of assessment used
What are different types of intervention strategies?
Health related community services
What is the generic approach to community organizing?(IEML)
The last four steps
What are other methods used for community organizing?
Healthy cities and communities
PATCH(moblizing the community,collecting data,choosing health priorities, intervention plan,evaluating)
It has p steps the first five fall under precede and the last four are proceed.
PRECEDE-predisposem reinforce,enable,construct,ecosystem diagnosis and evaluation
What are the five phases of precede?(SEBEA)
Administration and policy assessment
What is social assessment? (Topic Committee)
It asess quality of life
Use multiple source of information
Purpose is to understand how people percieve their own quality of life and understand their aspirations
engenders community participation
Sets priorities and cannot only look at health data
What does social assessment bring together?
Public's percieved needs
Actual needs based on scientific data
Resources, feasabilities and policy
What are different methods of data collection?
Retrive existing data
Quality of life?
perception of individuals or groups that their needs are being satisfied and they are not denied opportunities
process and condition among people and organizations that lead to accomplishing a goal of mutual social benefit
assessment of the capacities and skills of individuals and existing assets in the community
What is epidemiological assessment?
establishes relative importance of various health problems
provides basis for setting program priorities
helps in allocationg responsibilities
What is behavioral and environmental assessment?
Behavioral: analysis of behavioral links to the goals or problems ID in the previous stage
Environmental:analysis of factors in the immediate social and physical environment that could casually be linked to the behavior
What is educational and ecological assessment?
ID program objectives by looking at the causal factors of the behavior(predisposing,enabling,reinforcing)
Sort, categorize and select the factors that seem to have direct impact on the behavioral and environmental targets
What is Administrative policy?
Assess readiness of the organization
Develope timetable and budget
ID specific settings
What are the four steps of PRCEED(IPIO)
What are the three steps of implelementation?
Assessment of resources
Assessment of available resources
Assessment of factors influencing impelementation(evaluation committee)
What is process evaluation?
Day to day activities
Provides documentation on what is going on in the program
Describes actul program activities
What is impact evaluation?
Assess the overall effectiveness and effect of program activities on the client
What is outcome evaluation?
assess changes or improvement over time, morbidity and mortality and other health status indicatrs are examined.
What are the functions of needs and strength assessment?(UGOD)
Used as a way to allocate resources
Generate support for already established needs
Organize community to develp its potential to solve problems
Document the existance of a community health problem
What is the purpose of need assessment?
ID the needs of a target population
ID existing resources
Determine whether needs are being met
Create a useful program
What are different levels of assessing needs?
Macro-societal or state
What are different steps taken for needs assessment?
Decide to conduct one
Involve the community
Specify the purpose
ID approperiate needs
Summerize and interpert
What are the different strategies used?
Old-focus on needs, deficiencies and problems
New-discover the community capacity
Why is the old strategy is used more often?
Researchers like to study problems
Funding sources base grants on needs
A need orentation is used by media
Wall is built in a desire to help
What are the consequances of the focus on needs for the community?
People start thinking of themselves as deficient
Think of themselves as victims
Leads to fragmented solutions
Directs funding to service providers
Negatively affects local community leadership
Encourages cycle of dependancy
Leads to sense of hopelessness
What are community assets?
What are different approaches?
Asset based-starts with what is present in the community
Internally focused-agenda building and problem solving capacities of local residance and others involved
Relationship driven-constantly build and rebuild relationships among locan residents
What is the definition of the CBPR?
Approach that entailes incolcing all potential users of the research and other stakeholders in the application of the research (green and mercer)
What are the guiding principles of CBPR?(BBCDFDIPS)
The community is the unit of ID
Build on community assets
Develop a collaborative partnership
Co-learning and capacity building among all partners(most important component)
Balance between knowledge and intervention for mutual benefit
Focus on local relevance of public health problems
Systems development is key
Disseminates results to all partners
A long term process with commitment to sustainability(Israel)
What are the attributes of the CBPR approach?
The community is a unit of identity
The community is a co-equal entity
Community does not perceive it as university
Use multiple methods of data collection
Emphasis on long term commitment
Emphasis on co learning
Innovative problem solving
What caused the building of CBPR?
Health behavior change programs are not successful
Universities needed to get out
How does the CBPR process start?
Best if researchers are approached by community
Many approach for assistance
What are challanges associated with CBPR?
Takes time and effort to buid trust
It is more likely capacity building
Sometimes hard to develop a common purpose
Working with partners with different backgrounds
Differences between academic and the community
What is the difference between the university and community culture?
University people care about outocme professionally and they are outcome oriented. Research is the priority
Community people care about outcome personally, process oriented, research is extra work.
What are necessary skills needed for CBPR?
What are the benefits of CBPR?
Meet many wonderful people
Improvement in knowledge
Provide needed service while empowering communities
Involved in applied research
Learn about other cultures
Contribute to social justice
Awerness of our own cultural views and attitudes toward different cultures and cross cultural skills
What is the purpose of using age-related profiles?
It helps ID the risks and target interventions
What is MIC?
It incompassees health of women of chilbearing age from prepregnancy through pregnancy labor /delivery and the postportumand health of the health of a child prior to birth through adolescence
What is the importance of MIC statistics?
It is an important indicator of effectiveness of disease prevention and health promotion services in the community.
What Race/ethnicity has the highest infant mortality rate?
The lowest belongs to Cubans
What country has the lowest mortality?
What is the definition of family?
It is a primary unit in which infants and children are nurtured and supported regarding healthy development
What is the family definition according to US census bureau?
A group of two people or more related by birth, marriage or adoption and residing together
What is the importance of a family for children?
It is important for child's well being
What are the affects of being raised in a single parent household?
adverse birth outcomes
low birth weight
more likely to be in poverty
What is the difference between married and unmarried mothers?
They tend to have lower education
Greater dependence on welfare
What are the negative outcomes associated with teen pregnancy?
Drop out of school
Not getting married
Rely on public assistance
Live in poverty
**substantial economic consequances for the society
They are less likely to recieve early prenatal care
they are more likely to smoke, have LBW babies, have pregnancy complications
What are the negative health behavior associated with unintended pregnancies?
Delayed prenatal care
Inadequate weight gain
Alcohol and other drug use
What is the community involvement when it comes to family planning?
governmental and nongovernmental organizations
What is title X
This is a family planning act which is a federal program that provides funds for family planning services for low income people
** Major program to reduce unintended pregnancies
**supports 61% of family planning cliniques
**over 5M women receive care
What are some services provided by FPCS?
well baby care
Roe Vs. Wade
Abortion is legal in early stages of pregnancy
Who contributes to majority of abortions?
52% under age 25
What are the three components of the prenatal health care?
Treatment of medical conditions
Who faces the highest racial disparitiy in prenatal care?
American indians/Alaskan natives-this is due to their culture, health care and their access and the transportation
What are some factors contrinuting to infants health?
Mother's health and behavior
Levels of prenatal care
Quality of delivery
Infants environment after birth
What is infant mortality?
Death of a baby before the age of one and it is considered the measure of nation's health
What are the factors contributiong to decrease in mortality rate?
Improved disease survalliance
Advanced clinical care
Improved access to health care
What are leading causes of infant death?
Preterm,low birth weight
Chid mortality is?
most severe measure of health in children
What is the leading cause of death in children?
Unintentional injury specifically motor vehichle death
What are the causes of child morbidity?
Child maltreatment-community response needed
Infectious disease-importance of immunization
What is title V?
It is the only federal legislation dedicated to promoting and improving health of mothers and children
What is MCHB?(IPED)
This established in 1990 to administer title V funding
Accomplishes goals through 4 core public health services
Infrastructure building,population based,enabling and direct health care services
What is WIC?
This is a special supplement food program for women, infants and children sponsered by USDA started in 1974
What are the eligibility requirements for WIC?
Residency in application state and income requirements
Who are WIC enrollees?
1 years of age
2 years of age
What is CHIP?
this targets uninsured children whose families don't qualify for Medicaid
What is FMLA?
Grants 12 weeks of unpaid protected leave to men or women after birth of a child, adoption or illness in immidiate family
What are some organizations advocating for children?
Children's defense fund
American academy of pediatrics
What is the make up of US population?
66% white non.hispanic
What is Race and what are the categories?
Race is grouping people together based on the phenotypical or georgraphical ansectery. The four racial groups which in 1997 became 5 include:
American Indians/Alaskan native
** race is more social then biological
What is ethnicity and what are the categories?
Grouping people toghether through a common such as common language or culture.
Non hispanic origin
To define health disparities what are the factors that needs to be distinguished?
Health care access
Quality of health care
Health care outcomes
What are some factors contributiong to health disparities?
Health care provider
What is the largest minority group?
These are people of mexican,Puerto Rican, Cuban,Central American or south american descent or some other spanish origin
95% of hispanics in US are classified as white
They have less high school education so this relates to their income
Health beliefes is the role of God
What What is the origin of black american?
These people have origins in any of the black racial groups from africa
More then half live in the south
Their income is ranked below all racial groups
Due to roots in slavary they use traditional methods for achieving better health
What is the racial group with highest poverty rate?
What is Indian health services responsible for?
Assist tribes in developing health program
Facilitate and assist indians in coordination health programs
Provide comperehensive health care
Serve as principle health advocate
What is the definition of refugee,immigrants,alines,illigal aliens?
person who flees an area or country to seek shelter from danger.
individual who migrates from one country to another for ourpose of seeking permanent residance
Someone who is not born here(college studnents)
these enter the country illigally
What are the 6 categories that needs elemination of disparities in minority population?
What minority group has the highest rate of diabetes?
American indian alaskan native
What are the factors contributing to health disparities?
Legal and political
What is the single most influential contributor to premature morbidity and mortality?
What are three kinds of power associated with empowerment?
Social: access to bases needed to gain political power
Political:power of voice and action
Psychological:indicidual sense of potency
What age is considered adolesents?
What is the source of threat for the adolesence?
Behavior rather than disease
What are the leading causes of death in this age group?
Unintentional injury( 1/4 car crash involving alcohol)
What are the 2 common STDs and who has it in higher rate?
Chlymedia and gonnorhea females contract chlymedia at a higher rate between ages of 15-19
What are the major causes of motor vehichle crash injury?
Not wearing seat belt
being an aggressive driver
What is the leading cause of death among A.A adolesence?
This is the 2 lead for Hispanic and 3 for Native americans
What are risk factors associated with violance?
Exposure to violence
Poor emotional attatchemet
Friends engage in high risk
Low commitment to school
What are life style choices of High school students?
Over weight and weight control
What are life style choices of college students?
What are characteristics of adolescents?
Believe they know everything
Don't want to be told what to do
Believe they are invincible
Live in the moment
Don't consider consequenses
What community programs can prevent injury?
School lock down on prom night
Reduce the BAC (.8)
What is the age group for adults?
What is the cause of mortality among adults?
It is mostly chronic diseases which is associated with unhealthy behavior and poor life style choices
What are leading causes of death among 25-44?
What is the leading causes of death among 45-64?
What are the leading cause of cancer death for man and women?
for man- prostate,lung,colorectal
What are some risk factors associated with chronic disease?
Lack of exercise
What are risk factors associated with personal injury?
What are different categories of aging?
Elders-65 amd p;der
old old-85 and older this is the fastest growing population
Aged is defined as:
state of being old when one reaches a specific age
Aging is defined as:
changes that occur normally in plants and animals as they grow
study of aging , including chemical, biological, psychological, economic and historic
Medical practice specializing in treatment of the aged
What are the 3 defining points associated with the population and demography?
What are the factors contributing to population size and age?
Fertility rate-# of births/1000
Mortality rate-Death rate/100000
Migration -movement of people
What demographic variables affect community health programs for older americans?
Marital status (3/4 of men and half of women, women are more likely to be widowed)
Living arrangements( closely linked to income, health status and availability of caregivers)
Racial and ethnic composition
What is the state with the greatest elder population?
What are some reasons that states ages?
Leaving of young people
What is the income resource for the elderly?
What are top causes of death for elders?
What are different types of imparements for older adults?
What are some instrumental needs for elders?
Among elders what groups have the highest poverty?
non married women and minorities
What are major needs associated with housing for the elders?
When it comes to personal care of elders what are the for levels of taks that may need assistance?(IECT)
Instrumental- house keeping, transportation,maintanance
Cognitive task-scheduling appointments
Task of daily living-eating, bathing
What is a primary source of payment for health care services for elders?
What are some services provided to protect rights of elders?
Older american act of 1965
National nutrition program for elders
State and area agencies on aging
What is the leading cause of disability in north america?