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Chapter 5: Power & Social Class
Define class conflict.
conflict between upper and lower social classes over wealth and power
Define class consciousness.
believing that all members of one’s class have similar political and economic interests that compete with those of other classes
Define conflict theory.
inequality is imposed on society by those who want to retain their wealth and power
a decline in the manufacturing sector of the economy
Define division of labor.
individuals perform distinct, assigned functions
undesirable by-products of relations or institutions
Define equal of opportunity.
equal chances for success based on ability, work, initiative, and luck
Define equality of results.
equal incomes regardless of ability, work, or initiative
Define feminist theory.
a form of conflict theory that views society through a gendered prism and emphasizes women’s struggle for equality with men
Define fuctional theory.
inequality is necessary because it gets people to work harder in more demanding jobs that require longer training and greater skills.
increasing exchanges of goods and services by firms in different countries
Define latent functions.
unrecognized or unanticipated functions of societal relations or an institution
Define manifest functions.
acknowledged and expected functions of societal relations or an institution
Define measuring inequality.
percentage of total national income received by each fifth of income earners
Define objective identification.
ranking by occupation, income, or education
theorists who argue that groups are the dominant influence in public policymaking
Define power elite.
C. Wright Mills’s term for a ruling class who dominates decision making
Define reputational identification.
individuals ranking the prestige of occupations
Define social class.
a category and ranking in the stratification system
Define social mobility.
the movement of people upward or downward in social class
systematic classification of people into ranks on a superiorityinferiority scale
Define subjective identification.
individuals identify their own social class
Define subjective reality.
one individual’s interpretation of events that occur in a social interaction
Define The Chicago School.
the first sociology department in the U.S., located at the University of Chicago