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What is the definition of family?
Group of individuals with strong emotional relationships/ties, and durability of membership characterize family relationships, regardless of how uniquely they are composed or defined. Family is defined by the client. “Family is who they [clients] say they [their family members] are.
What is the nuclear family?
father & mother with one or more children living together as a single unit
What is an extended family?
composed of nuclear family units with combinations of second and third generation members related by blood or marriage but not living together. Dyad family – Husband and wife or other couple living alone without children. [Dyad: Two individuals linked as a pair (husband and wife or mother/daughter) & maintaining a sociologically significant relationship
What is an Polygamous family?
One man or women with several spouses
What is a gay family?
a homosexual couples living together with or without children. Commune: more than one couple living together and sharing resources.
What is a blended family?
two or more sets of grandparents, step-or half brothers & sisters, multiple aunts & uncles. Issues include discipline, money, use of time, birth of infant etc
What is the difference between a biological family and a blended family?
- Biological familyFamily created without loss
- Shared family traditions
- One set of family rules evolves
- Blended familyFamily born of loss
- There are two sets of family traditions
- Family rules varied & complicated
What is a general system theory?
- General Systems theory is the foundation for family system models
- General systems theory based on the idea that there are universal principles of organization governing functions of all systems.
What is Bowen’s system Theory?
Bowen – conceptualized “family” as the immediate family with whom the individual lives (nuclear), plus relatives living outside the family unit
Family - single emotional unit in which energy (anxiety) from its emotional process influences the behavior of every member in it.
What is Differentiation of self?
within system requires one to have the capacity to define the self within the family system as one with legitimate needs/wants (self-differentiation). The individual stays involved in the family without losing one’s identity. In self-differentiation one considers the views of others, but is not dominated by them. Poorly differentiated people (dysfunctional) are so dependent on acceptance and approval of others for their self-identity that they will suppress their own needs to gain approval/acceptance
What is a Multigenerational transmission?
describes an emotional transmission of patterns of behaving, roles within the family, and styles of communicating from one generation to the next. Families develop spoken and unspoken agreements of what are acceptable roles, and ways of communicating within the family and with each other that are handed down through one’s family of origin.
What is the Family projection process?
occurs when tension escalate and family may try to unconsciously reduce it’s anxiety by projecting it on to one of its members.
What is the sibling position?
take charge qualities of oldest-children, and laid backs spontaneous fun loving characteristics of younger child.
What is Emotional cut offs in family?
situation in which an individual breaks off contact with family members either physically, psychologically or both.
What is a family Triangle?
critical element in Bowen’s theory – a way of neutralizing family anxiety. Present to some degree in all families, Triangle represents a three-person emotional system that begins when there is tension between two members. A third person is bought in to stabilize the two person relationship and reduce the anxiety.
What is the Family Development stage theory?
Focus on life tasks the family is dealing with at the time health care is sought.
What did Duvall believe in?
viewed family as a system moving through time focused on 8 stages of development related to Nodal events of age-related changes. Ex Stage 1 Beginning families (married couples without children) – establishing a mutually satisfying marriage, fitting into kin network. Stage II – child bearing families. (oldest child birth through 30 months) – Having adjusting to, and encouraging the development of infants. (see p 293 Boggs Duvall’s 8 Stages Family Cycle and Developmental Tasks).
What are the 9 family characteristics indicative of successful family development?
- 1. independent home
- 2. satisfactory ways of earning & spending money
- 3. mutually acceptable patterns in the division of labor
- 4. Continuity of mutually satisfying sexual relationships
- 5. Open systems of communication
- 6. Workable relationship with relatives
- 7. Ways of interacting with the larger social community .
- 8. Competency in child-bearing and child raising
- 9. A workable philosophy of life
What is McCubbin’s Resiliency Model of Coping?
- the way in which a family responds to crisis helps identify its coping pattern and level of adaption.
- In model A (the event) interacts with B (resources) and with C (family perception of event) to produce X (theories)
- -expand model include concepts of pile of demands, family system resources, and past crisis behavior.
- -recent resiliency model emphasizes family adaption to facilitate coping.
- -explores the family’s capabilities, strengths, resources, and methods of coping could be used or developed to successfully meet a family crisis.
- *McCubbin’s model attempts to explain why some family systems fall apart while others with similar circumstances are able to recover without significant psychological sequale.
What will the McCubbin's Resiliency model of coping good for?
Using this model, nurse inquire about how family able to work together in dealing with challenges of current illness, how each family member coping with situation, role he or she would like to play, nurse help family explore the type of coping strategies, changes needed in family functioning to help cope with illness over-time and the degree to which family is able to meet requirements of crisis situation.
What did Wright and Leahey do?
described two ways of examining family functioning (Instrumental & Expressive)
What is the Instrumental family function?
tasks of daily living (ex eating, sleeping, caring for a sick member).
What is the Expressive family function?
look at communication, problem-solving skills, roles, beliefs
Planning for family
- Once family assessment completed, analyze data and summarize family needs. – Consider families definition of problem, key family characteristics (languages, beliefs, strengths). Unique cooperative response patterns of family members, family treatment goals set realistic & achievable goals.
- Be sensitive to viewpoints of each family member
- Respect families values and priorities – primary goal to empower family to take as much responsibility as possible for quality health car outcome.
- -helping family to become aware of information from environment and to use what is available from outside.
- -Incorporate family strengths- view family as having strength to cope with problem rather than being a problem (strengths nurse can help family use- traits that reside within individual or a family (optimism , resilience), capabilities, skills (problem solving).
- -look for physical, emotional and spiritual strength – that can help them experience the current health alteration questions to elicit family strength – what has the family been doing so far that has been helpful? What is going well for this family? – How have they (family) been able to do as well as rthey have done? – Answers to questions help nurse and family develop strategies that include family strength.
to promote positive change in family functioning commend family & individual strengths.
- -Offer information & opinions.
- -Validate or normalize emotional responses.
- -Encourage telling of illness narratives.
- -Drew forth family support
- Encourage family members as care goes.
- -Encourages respite
- -Devise rituals
- Encourage family to develop new ways of coping, list alternatives that allow family to choose coping styles useful to them.
- -Offer communications – practice of noticing, drawing forth, highlighting previously unobserved, forgotten or unspoken family strengths, competencies or resources.