psychology

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psychology
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2011-05-17 01:24:45
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psychology final
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  1. Definition of psychology
  2. Wilhelm Wundt and the 1st Psychology laboratory
  3. Operational definition
  4. Difference between psychologists and psychiatrists
  5. Behaviorism theory
  6. Independent vs. Dependent variables
  7. Correlational Coefficients: what the numbers and signs indicate
  8. Experiments: placebo, control group
  9. Normal bell-shaped distribution curve
  10. Myelin sheath
  11. Synapse
  12. Reuptake process of neurons
  13. Endocrine system: hormones role
  14. Oldest to newest parts of brain development
  15. Plasticity
  16. Corpus callosum
  17. Occipital lobes
  18. Dual processing
  19. Circadian rhythms
  20. REM sleep changes over the course of the night
  21. REM rebound
  22. Drug tolerance
  23. Drug withdrawal
  24. Stages of prenatal development: germinal (zygote), embryonic (embryo), fetal (fetus)
  25. Time when the heart begins beating during prenatal development
  26. Teratogens
  27. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: know highlight of each stage, object permanence,
  28. Harlow monkey experiment results
  29. Physical developmental changes: puberty, what influences the timing of puberty, primary vs. secondary sex characteristics
  30. Physical development: Early adulthood
  31. Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development
  32. Personality becomes stable during what stage
  33. Classical conditioning: know the terminology, the process and what increases its effectiveness
  34. Little Albert study and emotional conditioning
  35. Stimulus generalization and discrimination
  36. Operant conditioning: know the terminology and process
  37. Way reinforcement and punishment effect behavior
  38. Reinforcement: 4 schedules of reinforcement (fixed)
  39. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
  40. Definition of memory
  41. Types of memory: Short-term, Working Memory (capacity and times limits of each)
  42. Retrieval cues
  43. Ebbinghaus’ theory of forgetting
  44. State-dependent memory
  45. Definition of Intelligence
  46. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is what?
  47. Understand the distribution of scores in a normal distribution (what it looks like)
  48. Understand test standardization
  49. Sternberg’s theory of intelligence
  50. Definition of creativity
  51. IQ changes across the lifespan and effects on intelligence
  52. What are algorithms
  53. What is the availability heuristic
  54. Definition of motivation
  55. Homeostasis
  56. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  57. Bulimia nervosa
  58. Master’s and Johnson’s sexual response cycle
  59. Achievement motivation
  60. Autonomic nervous system’s role in emotion
  61. Facial-feedback hypothesis (example of it)
  62. Amygdala’s role in emotion
  63. Type A personality types: effects on stress
  64. Impact of stress on the immune system after one month
  65. Definition of coping
  66. Basic components of emotions
  67. Problem-focused coping
  68. Psychoanalytic view of personality; id, ego, superego; Oedipus complex
  69. Neo-Freudians: Alfred Adler
  70. Socio-cultural theory: reciprocal determinism; locus of control
  71. Purpose of the DSM-IV
  72. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  73. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder
  74. Depression: Role of serotonin in depression; Type of thinking patterns in depressed people
    serotonin
  75. Schizophrenia: hallucinations and dopamine; genetic predisposition
    • •Positive symptoms
    • •hallucinations
    • •delusions
    • •Negative symptoms
    • •absence of normal cognition or affect (e.g., flat affect, poverty of speech)
    • •Disorganized symptoms
    • •disorganized speech (e.g., word salad)
    • •disorganized behaviors

    • genetic predisposition:
    • Family variables
    • •parental communication that is disorganized, hard-to-follow, or highly emotional
    • •expressed emotion
    • • highly critical, over-enmeshed families
  76. Personality disorders
    Inflexible, maladaptive pattern of thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual’s culture
  77. Humanistic therapists vs. psychoanalytic therapists
    • humanistic:
    • •Humanistic perspective emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and free-will
    • •Humanistic therapies focus on self-perception and individual’s conscious thoughts and perceptions
    • •Client-centered (or person-centered) therapy is the most common form of humanistic therapy
    • •Carl Rogers (1902–1987)—developed this technique

    • psychoanalytic:
    • •Dream interpretation—dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious”; interpretation often reveals unconscious conflicts
    • •Transference—process where emotions originally associated with a significant person are unconsciously transferred to the therapist
    • •Free association—spontaneous report of all mental images, thoughts, feelings as a way of revealing unconscious conflicts

    •Resistance—patient’s unconscious attempt to block revelation of unconscious material; usually sign that patient is close to revealing painful memories
  78. Client-centered therapy
    • •Therapy is non-directive—therapist does not interpret thoughts, make suggestions, or pass judgment
    • •Therapy focuses on client’s subjective perception of self and environment
    • •Does not speak of “illness” or “cure”
  79. Aversive conditioning
    • •Relatively ineffective, does not generalize very well beyond therapy
    • •Pairs and aversive stimulus with the undesired behavior
  80. Behavior modification
    • •Behavioristic perspective emphasizes that behavior (normal and abnormal) is learned
    • •Uses principles of classical and operant conditioning to change maladaptive behaviors
    • •Behavior change does not require insight into causes
    • •Often called behavior modification
  81. Cognitive therapy
    •Based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking

    • •Therapy focuses on recognition and alteration of unhealthy thinking patterns
    • •Problems due to negative cognitive bias that leads to distorted perceptions and interpretations of events
    • •Recognize the bias then test accuracy of these beliefs
    • •Therapist acts as model and aims for a collaborative therapeutic climate

    Arron Beck
  82. Group therapy
    •Group therapy—one or more therapists working with several people at the same time.
  83. Placebo effect
  84. Research study results for therapy effectiveness
    • •Therapeutic relationship—caring and mutually respectful
    • •Therapist characteristics—caring attitude, ability to listen, sensitive
    • •Client characteristics—motivated, actively involved, emotionally and socially mature
  85. Psychopharmacology
    the study of medication used for helping with the mind and behaviors
  86. SSRI’s- treatment for depression (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor)
    helps increase serotonin levels to be at a balanced normal state.
  87. electroconclusive therapy
    • •Used for severe depression
    • •Very effective for quick relief of symptoms of severe depression (can be used until medication begins to work)
    • •May have cognitive side effects such as memory loss
    • •Very controversial treatment

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