The Variety of the Evidence - Flashcards

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Anonymous
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86330
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The Variety of the Evidence - Flashcards
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2011-05-17 10:56:01
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archaeology
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From Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (4th edition), 2006, Renfrew and Bahn, Thames & Hudson
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  1. Artifacts
    Humanly made or modified portable objects, such as stone tools, pottery, and metal weapons.

    (Chapter 2 p. 51)
  2. Features
    Non-portable artifacts; e.g. hearths, architectural elements, or soil stains.

    (Chapter 2 pp. 51-52)
  3. Ecofacts
    Non-artifactual organic and environmental remains which have cultural relevance, e.g. faunal and floral material as well as soils and sediments.

    (Chapter 2 p. 52)
  4. Sites
    A distinct spatial clustering of artifacts , features , structures, and organic and environmental remains - the residue of human activity.

    (Chapter 2 p. 52)
  5. Context
    An artifact's context usually consists of its immediate matrix (the material around it e.g. gravel, clay, or sand), its provenience (horizontal and vertical position in the matrix), and its association with other artifacts (with other archaeologial remains, usually in the same matrix).

    (Chapter 2 p. 52)
  6. Matrix
    The physical material within which artifacts are embedded or supported.

    (Chapter 2 p. 54)
  7. Association
    The co-occurrence of an artifact with other archaeological remains, usually in the same matrix.

    (Chapter 2 p. 52)
  8. Experimental Archaeology
    The study of past behavioral processes through experimental reconstruction under carefully controlled scientific conditions.

    (Chapter 2 p. 55)
  9. Formation Processes
    Those processes affecting the way in which archaeological materials came to be buried, and their subsequent history afterwards. Cultural formation processes include deliberate or accidental activities of humans; natural formation processes refer to natural / environmental events which govern the burial and survival of archaeological record.

    (Chapter 2 p. 54)
  10. Hoards
    Deliberately buried groups of valuables or prized possessions, often in times of conflict or war, and which, for one reason or another, have not been reclaimed. Metal hoards are a primary source of evidence for the European Bronze Age.

    (Chapter 2 p. 57)
  11. Electrolysis
    A standard cleaning process in archaeological conservation. Artifacts are placed in a chemical solution, and by passing a weak current between them and a surrounding metal grill, the corrosive salts move from the cathode (object) to the anode (grill), removing any accumulated deposit and leaving the artifact clean.

    (Chapter 2 p. 59)

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