Biochem

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son850
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86391
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Biochem
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2011-06-18 22:35:08
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Biochem
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Biochem
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  1. Energy to power muscles contractions is released when oxygen combines with chemical compounds (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) in the cell.
    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
  2. Primary energy source for short, maximum performance events (i.e. sprints, cycling).
    Carbohydrates
  3. Energy source for the cell, being important for endurance events.
    Fats
  4. Maintain and repair body tissues and are not normally used as an energy source to power muscle activity.
    Proteins
  5. What are the two limiting factors in cellular energy production?
    • Enough oxygen
    • Availability of appropriate fuel (carbohydrates (fats and proteins can be used but carbohydrates are better)
  6. Controlled oxidation in the cell is accomplished by "refining" these three basic compounds (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), to what single common chemical compound?
    ATP
  7. A pathway for production of ATP.
    A high energy molecule found in all muscle cells.
    Great for "running for the bus" - emergency use
    Not the best for sprint activities.
    Phosphocreatine
  8. A pathway for production of ATP.
    Requires oxygen.
    Can produce ATP from carbohydrates, fats, and protein.
    Good for endurance activities.
    Aerobic metabolism
  9. A pathway of production of ATP.
    Occurs in the absence of oxygen and limited to carbohydrates (glucose or glycogen) as a fuel source at the cost of lactic acid buildup in muscle (pain).
    Generally the source of energy only for short bursts of high level activity lasting several minutes at most (sprints).
    Glycolysis or anaerobic metabolism
  10. When there is a cell receptor problem what can occur?
    Cholesterol and diabetes problems
  11. -ate
    acids with COOH group
  12. What process only happens in the Liver.
    Gluconeogenesis
  13. What is the major form of stored carbohydrate in animals?
    Glycogen
  14. What is the major form of stored carbohydrate in plant cells?
    It is also the major source of dietary carbohydrates for humans.
    Starch
  15. Digestion in the gut converts all carbohydrates to this?
    Monosaccharides
  16. What is the livers central role concerning dietary glucose?
    Storage and distribution within the body of all fuels
  17. In what form is the fuel stored as in the Liver?
    Glycogen
  18. What does the liver convert fuel to?
    Where is it stored and what what form is it in?
    • Fatty Acids
    • Stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglycerides
  19. Where do all nutrients pass thru?
    Hepatic portal vein - functions as an artery
  20. What two major areas store Glycogen?
    • Liver
    • Skeletal Muscle
  21. What is the term for converting glycogen to glucose?
    Glycogenolysis
  22. Can muscles release glucose to circulatory system?
    No
  23. Why do muscless store more glycogen than the Liver?
    There is more muscle mass that there is Liver.
  24. Where is glucose 6-phosphatase found?
    Only in the Liver
  25. The breaking down of glucose.
    The process of splitting a 6-carbon chain (C6H12O6) into two- 3-carbon chains called pyruvate (C3H6O3)
    Glycolysis
  26. Pyruvate is reduced to a compound called Lactate in the process called?
    Anaerobic Glycolysis
  27. Pyruvate is transported inside mitochondria and oxidized to a compund called?
    Acetyl Coenzyme A (aceytl CoA) by the process of Aerobic Glycolysis
  28. The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle is also know as?
    Krebs Cycle
  29. Cycling of lactate produced by red blood cells and muscle during anaerobic respiration back into glucose
    Cori Cycle
  30. This hormones source is the pancreas and targets Liver tissue
    Glucagon - stimulates glycogen breakdown
  31. This hormones source is the Adrenals and targets muscle
    Adrenaline - stimulates glycogen breakdown
  32. Which organ in the body is most sensitive to glucose levles?
    Brain
  33. Small islands of endocrine cells in the pancreas
    pancreatic islets
  34. This hormone targets Liver, Fat, and Muscle cells
    Insulin
  35. Stimulates the liver and muscles to break down stored glycogen (glycogenolysis) and releases glucose

    Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidneys
    Glucagon
  36. Juvenile Diabetes
    Insulin-dependent type
    Cannot produce insulin naturally due to β-cells being destoryed
    Type 1 Diabetes
  37. Adult-onset diabetes
    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes
    Has higher than normal insulin in the blood but does not accept Insulin
    Type 2 Diabetes
  38. Similar to Type 2 diabetes but found in pregnant women
    Gestational diabetes
  39. Medical term for: Excessive thirst
    Polydipsia
  40. Medical term for: Frequent urination
    Polyuria
  41. Medical term for: Extreme hunger or constant eating
    Polyphagia
  42. Medical terms for: Presence of glucose in the urine
    Glycosuria
  43. Metabolism of fatty acids leads to the production of acidic ketones in the blood
    Ketoacidosis
  44. Glyceraldehyde

    Dihydroxyacetone
    Examples of 3 Carbon Triose
  45. Erythrose
    Example of 4 carbon Tetrose
  46. Ribose

    Ribulose

    Xylulose
    Example of 5 carbon Pentose
  47. Glucose

    Galactose

    Mannose

    Fructose
    Example of 6 carbon Hexose
  48. Contains carboxylic acid group and ketone group. A weak acid that can break down into acetone and carbon dioxide
    Acetoacetic Acid
  49. An example of a ketone, naturally produced in the body as a product of the metabolic process
    Acetone
  50. Increased acidity in the blood plasma
    Acidosis
  51. Self-digestion, lysomes release digestive enzymes into the cytoplasm causing the cell to "eat" itself
    Autolysis
  52. Found in pancreatic islets which secrete glucagon to regulate glucose in the blood
    α-cell
  53. Found in pancreatic islets which secrete insulin to regulate glucose in the blood
    β-cell
  54. Found in the blood, linked to β-cell functionality
    C-peptide
  55. Urine Production
    Diuresis
  56. Hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels
    Glucagon
  57. Glycogen Synthesis
    Glycogenesis
  58. Converting glycogen to glucose
    Glycogenolysis
  59. Glucose in the urine
    Glycosuria
  60. Maintaining equilibrium within the body
    Homeostasis
  61. High Blood Sugar (higher than normal)
    Hyperglycemia
  62. Low Blood Sugar (lower than normal)
    Hypoglycemia
  63. IDDM
    Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 Diabetes)
  64. Regulates glucose levels in the blood
    Insulin
  65. metabolic state associated with high concentration of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and deamination of amino acids
    Ketoacidosis
  66. The breakdown of fatty acids to energy used by kidney and liver
    Ketone bodies
  67. Elevated levels of ketone bodies in the body
    Ketosis
  68. The breakdown of lipids
    Lipolysis
  69. NIDDM
    Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 Diabetes)
  70. Increased urination caused by the presence of certain substances (such as glucose) in the small tubes of the kidneys
    Osmotic Diuresis
  71. Polydipsia
    Excessive Thirst
  72. Polyphagia
    Over Eating
  73. Polyuria
    Excessive or abnormal urination

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