Energy to power muscles contractions is released when oxygen combines with chemical compounds (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) in the cell.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Primary energy source for short, maximum performance events (i.e. sprints, cycling).
Energy source for the cell, being important for endurance events.
Maintain and repair body tissues and are not normally used as an energy source to power muscle activity.
What are the two limiting factors in cellular energy production?
Availability of appropriate fuel (carbohydrates (fats and proteins can be used but carbohydrates are better)
Controlled oxidation in the cell is accomplished by "refining" these three basic compounds (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins), to what single common chemical compound?
A pathway for production of ATP.
A high energy molecule found in all muscle cells.
Great for "running for the bus" - emergency use
Not the best for sprint activities.
A pathway for production of ATP.
Can produce ATP from carbohydrates, fats, and protein.
Good for endurance activities.
A pathway of production of ATP.
Occurs in the absence of oxygen and limited to carbohydrates (glucose or glycogen) as a fuel source at the cost of lactic acid buildup in muscle (pain).
Generally the source of energy only for short bursts of high level activity lasting several minutes at most (sprints).
Glycolysis or anaerobic metabolism
When there is a cell receptor problem what can occur?
Cholesterol and diabetes problems
acids with COOH group
What process only happens in the Liver.
What is the major form of stored carbohydrate in animals?
What is the major form of stored carbohydrate in plant cells?
It is also the major source of dietary carbohydrates for humans.
Digestion in the gut converts all carbohydrates to this?
What is the livers central role concerning dietary glucose?
Storage and distribution within the body of all fuels
In what form is the fuel stored as in the Liver?
What does the liver convert fuel to?
Where is it stored and what what form is it in?
Stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglycerides
Where do all nutrients pass thru?
Hepatic portal vein - functions as an artery
What two major areas store Glycogen?
What is the term for converting glycogen to glucose?
Can muscles release glucose to circulatory system?
Why do muscless store more glycogen than the Liver?
There is more muscle mass that there is Liver.
Where is glucose 6-phosphatase found?
Only in the Liver
The breaking down of glucose.
The process of splitting a 6-carbon chain (C6H12O6) into two- 3-carbon chains called pyruvate (C3H6O3)
Pyruvate is reduced to a compound called Lactate in the process called?
Pyruvate is transported inside mitochondria and oxidized to a compund called?
Acetyl Coenzyme A (aceytl CoA) by the process of Aerobic Glycolysis
The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle is also know as?
Cycling of lactate produced by red blood cells and muscle during anaerobic respiration back into glucose
This hormones source is the pancreas and targets Liver tissue
Glucagon - stimulates glycogen breakdown
This hormones source is the Adrenals and targets muscle
Adrenaline - stimulates glycogen breakdown
Which organ in the body is most sensitive to glucose levles?
Small islands of endocrine cells in the pancreas
This hormone targets Liver, Fat, and Muscle cells
Stimulates the liver and muscles to break down stored glycogen (glycogenolysis) and releases glucose
Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidneys
Cannot produce insulin naturally due to β-cells being destoryed
Type 1 Diabetes
Has higher than normal insulin in the blood but does not accept Insulin
Type 2 Diabetes
Similar to Type 2 diabetes but found in pregnant women
Medical term for: Excessive thirst
Medical term for: Frequent urination
Medical term for: Extreme hunger or constant eating
Medical terms for: Presence of glucose in the urine
Metabolism of fatty acids leads to the production of acidic ketones in the blood
Examples of 3 Carbon Triose
Example of 4 carbon Tetrose
Example of 5 carbon Pentose
Example of 6 carbon Hexose
Contains carboxylic acid group and ketone group. A weak acid that can break down into acetone and carbon dioxide
An example of a ketone, naturally produced in the body as a product of the metabolic process
Increased acidity in the blood plasma
Self-digestion, lysomes release digestive enzymes into the cytoplasm causing the cell to "eat" itself
Found in pancreatic islets which secrete glucagon to regulate glucose in the blood
Found in pancreatic islets which secrete insulin to regulate glucose in the blood
Found in the blood, linked to β-cell functionality
Hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels