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Momentary change in electrical potential on the surface of a cell that stimulates a reaction and transmission of an electrical impulse.
Type of secreting gland in which a milky viscous fluid develops a strong odor when in contact with bacteria on the skin surface. These are present in areas such as the armpits, genital areas, around the belly button, and wax excreting glands.
Latin for raiser of the hair - small muscles attached to the hair follicle.
Outermost layer of the epidermis (skin) whose cells slough off.
A small, unattached free floating biological cell in the body (blood or lymph) or rounded mass of cells (some nerve endings) - Latin for small body.
Cells that produce collagen and elastin
The most common type of cell in the epidermis, a cell that produces keratin.
Part of the skin's immune response. It engulfs foreign material.
Only found in thick skin; it is a transparent layer of densely packed kerotinocytes.
Consists of a twisted tube embedded in the dermin or hypodermines and opens out onto the skin surface as a pore. They produce a watery fluid in response to excessive body heat or anxiety and fear; functios to cool the body and excrete wastes.
Outer skin containing tough protein called Keratin
- Stratum basale: the deepest layer consisting of stem cells.
- Stratum spinosum: usually the thickest layer; it is where the keratinocytes divide.
- Stratum granulosum: consists of layers of flat keratinocytes.
- Stratum lucidum: only found in thick skin; it is a transparent layer of densely packed keratinocytes.
- Stratum corneum: the most superficial layer composed of dead keratinocytes that slough off.
- The dermis is a collagen and elastin rich
- connective tissue that lies immediately deep to the epidermis and is
- much thicker than the epidermis. The dermis is responsible for the
- elasticity and mechanical support of the skin, supplying the epidermis
- with nutrients, and is important in thermoregulation.
- Papillary- the superficial layer of the dermis is made up of thin collagen fibers; it protrudes into the dermis.
- Reticular- the deep layer is made up of thick collagen fibers; it contains the majority of dermal structures and supports said structures.
- The dermis contains fibroblasts which are cells that produce collagen and elastin.
They produce sebum, an oily secretion that prevents the hair and skin from becoming dry
Sensory nerve endings
Transmit sensations of pain and temperature. Wrap around hair follicle
Circulation in skin
occurs via arteries, capillaries and veins that supply the skin with nutrients and remove the waste products
- Not actually skin but subcutaneous connective tissue that lies deep to the dermis. The hypodermis acts as a protective cushion and insulator.
- It contains:1) Fat2) Blood vessels3) Sensory receptors
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