A&P Exm 4 Chptr 14

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A&P Exm 4 Chptr 14
2011-05-17 17:10:17
Nervous System

Exam 4 Chpt 14
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  1. What are the bones surrounding the brain called?
    Cranial bones
  2. Describe the Dura mater: Location, Composition, & Job.
    A double layer around the brain, comprised of dense irregular CT and its job is to protect the brain by forming the dural folds which help stabilize the brain as well as provide the dural sinus which the veins of the brain open into. This blood is then returned to circulationso waste can be removed and nutrients can be replenished to it.
  3. Name the 3 major dural folds, their location, & job.
    • Falx cerebri– lrgst fold & located btwn cerebral hemispheres
    • Tentorium cerebelli– located btwn the cerebrum and cerebellum **think tent over cerebellum**
    • Falx cerebelli– located btwn the cerebellar hemispheres
    • All made of inner dura mater & they anchor/support the brain.
  4. Describe the Arachnoid: Location, Composition, & Job.
    Made of avascular collagen and elastin mixture, located deep to the dura mater and the subdural space. Its job is create subarachnoid space.
  5. Describe the Pia mater: Location, Composition, & Job.
    Made of collagen and elastin, follows the entire cortex of the brain including folds “shrink wraps” brain and it holds all the blood vessels to the brain.
  6. Where is the sub-arachnoid space and what fluid is found inside?
    Deep to the arachnoid mater and consists of cerebrospinal fluid inside the space.
  7. Name and describe the 4 ventricles of the brain: Give location & what they contain.
    • (2) Lateral ventricles - one per cerebral hemisphere
    • (1) 3rd ventricle - btwn the rght & lft halves of the thalamus
    • (1) 4th ventricle – btwn the brainstem and the cerebellum, leads into the central canal of the
    • spinal cord. *All contain CSF*
  8. How are the 4 ventricles of the brain connected to each other?
    The 2 lateral ventricles connect to the 3rd which connects to the cerebral aquaduct and then to the 4th ventricle.
  9. CSF stands for C________________ S_______________ F_______________
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  10. What structures produce CSF and What are these structures made of?
    Choroid plexus produces CSF and they are made of blood vessels and ependymal cells.
  11. Where are the structures producing CSF located?
    Within the 4 ventricles.
  12. What is the flow pattern of the CSF?
    Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aquaduct, fourth ventricle, subarachnoid space or central canal, brain and spinal cord surfaces. It is reabsorbed by arachnoid villa and arachnoid granulations found on the top/back of head.
  13. How much CSF is in circulation? How much is made daily?
    100 – 150 ml circulating but approx. 500 ml produced daily.
  14. What structures absorb "old" CSF and where are they located?
    Reabsorbed by arachnoid villa and arachnoid granulations found on the top/back of head.
  15. What functions does CSF have?
    Mechanically it protects the brain and cord by means of cushion and support to avoid pressure at any one point. The brain basically floats in it.
  16. What is hydrocephalus and what problems can it cause?
    AKA:"water on brain" but really accumulation of excessive CSF w/i the ventricles. In infants, this will result in abnormal large head but in adults can cause brain damage. Can be congenital or caused from trauma or infection such as meningitis.
  17. Why does the brain need a good blood supply?
    Brain has high metabolic activity and low ability to store energy. At rest, the brain uses 20% of body’s oxygen so constant need for glucose and oxygen.
  18. What happens if the brain’s blood supply is interrupted for different lengths of time?
    Waste will build and the brain could “starve” = some neurons my die and others may become severely damaged. Severity is dependent on the length of time w/little to no new blood.
  19. What is the Blood Brain Barrier and what neuroglial cells help to form it?
    It is the selective permeability of the ependymal cells as well as astrocytes
  20. Which molecules cross the Blood Brain Barrier easily?
    Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glycogen, & alcohol.
  21. Which molecules can cross but are more carefully regulated?
    Ions & urea
  22. What types of substances have a great deal of trouble crossing the barrier?
    Whole proteins, cells, microbes and antibiotics.
  23. What are some of the areas of the brain NOT protected by the blood brain barrier?
    Hypothalamus and Pineal gland
  24. Why is it important to the brain's fxn as a control structure, to allow some areas of the brain to interact directly with the blood stream?
    B/C it maintains homeostasis.
  25. Which combo of structures is called the Brainstem? What types of fxns does it handle?
    • Medulla Oblongata, Pons and Midbrain.
    • Links spinal cord to brain & links cerebellum to cerebrum.
  26. Where is the medulla oblongata (MO) located?
    Btwn the spinal cord and the pons.
  27. What type of tracts run through the MO?
    All ascending and all descending tracts.
  28. What are some of the nuclei (centers) found in the MO?
    Cardiovascular centers, Digestive reflex, & Primary Respiratory center
  29. Define Decussate.
    • Crossing over from rt side of body to left side of body or vice versa.
    • Rt brain controls left side & lft brain controls rt side.
  30. Describe where the pons is located and what structures is it attached to.
    In brain stem btwn medulla oblongata & the midbrain.
  31. Where are fibers from the pons going?
    To the cerebellum or to the brain stem, cerebrum and spinal cord.
  32. What major physiologic control center is in the pons?
    2nd respiratory center
  33. Where is the Cerebellum located and what structures attach it to the rest of the brain?
    On the posterior side of the brainstem, inferior to the cerebrum.
  34. What types of fnxs are handled by the cerebellum?
    Basic survival fxns: Center for equilibrium, posture and balance, muscle tone, and body position.
  35. Why would cerebellar damage cause major problems with balance and movement?
    B/C the center for equilibrium, posture and balance, muscle tone and body position are all w/i the cerebellar.
  36. What is the white matter in the cerebellum called?
    Arbor Vitae
  37. Where is the Midbrain (mesencephalon) located and what structures is it attached to?
    It is superior to the pons on the brain stem.
  38. What fluid filled structure runs through the midbrain?
    Aquaduct of the midbrain.
  39. What is the Reticular Activating System & What is its fxn?
    RAS is the specialized component of gray matter that extends from the spinal cord to the diencephalon. Stimulation of the region makes you more alert and attentive.
  40. Describe the location, size and shape of the thalamus.
    On each side of the diencephalon, they surround the 3rd ventricle. It makes up 4/5 of the diencephalon and is oval in shape.
  41. What areas of the brain relay messages through the thalamus and what types of messages?
    See NOTES
  42. What are the major fxns of the thalamus?
    It sorts and filters sensory info but only passes on a small portion of info that is received.
  43. Describe the location and size of the hypothalamus.
    Located in the lower portion of the diencephalonhypothalamus and is small.
  44. What structures are attached to the hypothalamus?
    Mamillary bodies, optic chiasm, and pituitary gland.
  45. The hypothalamus has areas not protected by the blood brain barrier, why is this important to homeostasis?
    It plays an major part to homeostasis by monitoring blood and body temperature.
  46. Describe how the hypothalamus ties endocrine and nervous systems together.
    Coordinates activities of the nervous and endocrine systems by inhibiting or stimulating endocrine cells in the pituitary gland through the production of regulatory hormones.
  47. What does the hypothalamus have to do with the Autonomic nervous system?
    it adjusts and coordinates the activities of autonomic ctrs in the pons and medulla oblongata. It also coordinates btwn voluntary and autonomic fxns – fight or flight
  48. What are the other major control/monitoring type functions of the hypothalamus?
    Subconscious control of skeletal muscle contractions, circadian rhythms, hunger and satiety and thirst ctrs.
  49. Where is the limbic system located?
    Medial surface of each hemisphere. Includes cerebrum, diencephalon and midbrain.
  50. What are some of the major fxns of the limbic system?
    It is the connection btwn memory, emotions and conscious processing, est emotional state– it’s the motivational center.
  51. What are some of the major fxns that are carried out in the cerebrum?
    Thinking, problem solving, planning, memory, and communications.
  52. Define Cerebral cortex.
    Outer folded structure that gives greater area for processing. Surface gray matter of cerebrum
  53. Define Cerebral nuclei.
  54. Define Gyrus.
    The folds of the cerebral cortex.
  55. Define Sulcus.
    The grooves between the gyri.
  56. Define Fissure.
    An elongate groove or opening.
  57. Define Cerebral hemispheres.
    Each ½ of the cerebrum. Divided by the longitudinal fissure.
  58. Name the three sets of cerebral white matter (tracts) and know what they each connect.
    • Association Fibers – connect gyri of the same hemisphere
    • Commissural Fibers – connect the 2 hemispheres. Corpus Callosum
    • Projection Fibers – connect cerebrum to the rest of brain. When the thalamus detects your thirsty, the cerebrum decides where to get drink.
  59. Which category of tracts does the corpus callosum fall into?
  60. What fxn(s) do Cerebral Association Areas have?
    Sensory and motor areas of cortex are connected to association areas. These areas interpret new sensory info, coordinate motor responses, & put things into context like words, text and reading.
  61. What fxn(s) do the cerebral integrative centers perform?
    Receive info from multiple association areas. Integrative cntrs direct complex motor patterns, perform analytical fxn and predictive reasoning. Integrative centers are located in both cerebral hemispheres.
  62. Where is the Basal nuceli of the cerebrum located?
    Deep to floor of lateral ventricles.
  63. What type of processing occurs in the Basal nuceli?
    Subconscious control of gross motor mvmnts like swinging arms while walking along with skeletal muscle tone, pattern and rhythm of mvmnts and coordination of learned motor patterns. It actually smooths movements.
  64. Describe Parkinson’s disease, what happens to basal ganglia tissue, & What some of the characteristic mvmnt problems seen in Parkinson’s patients?
    Progressive degeneration of dopamine producing neurons esp in basal nucleus that is usually associated with aging. Involves involuntary skeletal muscle contractions, spasticity and tremor along with rigidity which leads to decreased range of motion.
  65. Where is the Frontal lobe located?
    In front of the cerebral hemispheres behind frontal bone
  66. Where is the primary motor area of the Frontal lobe and what structures get directions from this area?
    In the pre-central gyrus of the frontal lobe and skeletal muscles get directions from this area.
  67. Where is the Pre-motor area?
  68. Give examples of mvmnts controlled by the Pre-motor area. (AKA prefrontal cortex)
    Works with primary motor area for tasks like riding a bike.
  69. Where is the “language motor area” and what is another name for it?
    Located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere and also called the speech ctr or the Broca’s area.
  70. What type of language processing takes place in this area?
    Normal speech
  71. Which side of the brain is usually dominant for speech production?
  72. What structures are controlled by this portion (Frontal lobe) of cerebral cortex?
    Tongue, mouth, pharynx, and larynx muscles
  73. Where is the Parietal lobe located?
    In the Cerebral lobe behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobes. Basically the crown of the head.
  74. What type of information is handled in the parietal lobe of the cerebrum?
  75. What sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe?
    Central sulcus
  76. Where is the primary somatosensory area and what types of information does it help process?
    Posterior the central sulcus and it is the general sensory processing area.
  77. What type of information is stored in the somatosensory association area?
    Tactile memory – recognition by touch not sight
  78. Where is the temporal lobe located?
    Behind the temporal bones
  79. What general type of info is handled in the temporal lobe?
    Mainly processes sound
  80. What type of info does the Primary Auditory area process?
  81. What specific types of sound related information is the Primary Auditory area capable of processing?
    Identifies pitch and rhythm
  82. What type of processing does the Auditory (Broca’s) Association area process?
    Sound memory and references
  83. What happens to a person who has damage to the temporal lobe (Auditory areas) of the cerebral cortex?
    Will hear but wont be able to make sense or process what they are hearing.
  84. Where is the occipital lobe located?
    Behind the occipital bone.
  85. What general type of info is handled in the occipital lobe?
    Visual processing, storage of visual memories.
  86. Where is the Primary Visual area located in the occipital lobe?
    Just deep to the Occipital bone in the Primary Visual cortex.
  87. Where is input to the occipital lobe coming from and what problems would damage to it result in?
    Comes from both eyes and damage to this area would interfere with interpretation of what you see.
  88. Where is the Visual association area located?
    It is deep to the Primary Visual Cortex
  89. What type of info is stored in the Visual association area and what would damage to this area do?
    This is your memory photobook. Damage to it would effect your ability to recognize.
  90. Where is the Insula located?
    Deep to other lobes.
  91. What type of matter makes up most of the Insula lobe?
    Lots of white matter
  92. Why do we know so little about the Insula lobe's functions?
    Because it is such a small area and deep w/i underlying layers which make it hard to get to. Also hard to work with lab rats b/c they cannot communicate w/us to relay the info needed from this area.
  93. What type of info is processed in the gustatory area?
    Taste and linked to limbic system for memory and taste.
  94. What does the term cerebral cortex lateralization mean?
    Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized, meaning neither side does the tasks of the other.
  95. What are some of the differences between right and left cerebral cortex processing?
    Lft hemisphere contains the general interpretive and speech ctrs and is responsible for language-based skills. The rt hemisphere analyzes sensory information and relates the body to the sensory environment. These ctrs permit you to identify familiar objects by touch, smell, sight, taste or feel. Basically, rt brain controls lft side of body and left brain controls rt side of body. (Left side allows you to name it & Rt side allows you to describe it)
  96. What structures let us coordinate processing between the two cerebral hemispheres?
    Corpus callosum
  97. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
  98. What structures are the cranial nerves attached to?
  99. What do we mean by sensory, motor and mixed nerves?
    Sensory is info to the brain, Motor is infor FROM the brain (almost exclusively motor fibers), & Mixed carry both sensory and motor fibers.
  100. For Each of the Cranial Nerves: Be able to say if it is sensory, motor or mixed. Be able to list fxns for the nerve & If it is a mixed nerve be sure you know both sensory and motor functions.
  101. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Blindness?
    Optic nerves
  102. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Balance problems?
  103. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Loss of sense of smell?
    Olfactory nerve
  104. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Controlling organs in ventral body cavity?
    Vagus nerve
  105. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Difficulty focusing eye, pupil reflex?
  106. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Hearing loss?
  107. Which cranial nerves are associated w/Loss of facial sensation & taste ability?