# research methods

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1. 1. “Hypotheses must be…”
• a. Testable-if a hypothesis does not generate any observational tests, there is nothing that a
• scientist can do with it-you must be able to test it by conducting some sort of experiment.
• b. Falsifiable- A hypothesis must be able to proven wrong, cannot be a definite yes/no or correct/false
• c. Precise-Must be exact
• d. Rational-It has to make sense and be logical.
• e. Parsimonious-It must be simple and understandable
2. What are the 3 sources of hypotheses?
• -own observation
• -theories
• -models
3. What are the 6 steps of hypothesis testing?
• 1. Form hypothesis from theory, model, or observations
• 2. Design study to test hypothesis
• 3. Derive predictions
• 4. Conduct study and test predictions
• 5. Confirm or revise hypothesis depending on observations
• 6. Modify theoretical concepts
4. What is the Watson Selection test?
• -Developed as a tst of logical reasoning
• -Used by psychologists to study structure of human reasoning
• -1966
• -A logic puzzle formally equivalent to a question that ass about four cards with numbers/colors
• -A response which identifies a card which need not be inverted, or a response which fails to identify a card which needs to be inverted are both wrong
• -The original task dealt with numbers (even/odd) and letters (vowels,constants)
5. What is conditional reasoning?
• Based on and 'if A then B' construct that points B to be true if A is true
• Conditional traps
• Leaves open the question if A is false
• Denying antecedent (making assumptions about what happens if A is false: If it is training, I will get wet, and it is not raining, but then something else could happen)
• Denying consequent - if B is false, then A must also be false
• Affirming consequent - A and B are both true.
6. What are the 2 ways to properly test a conditioning statement?
7. What are the order effects?
• The order in which the subject is placed in an experiment affects the data
• examples
• Fatigue - subjects become upset, tired, and frustrated if kept for a long time
• Practice -subjects become accustomed to conditions and perform well as a result, skewing results
8. What pactorial design

### Card Set Information

 Author: nix521 ID: 86402 Filename: research methods Updated: 2011-05-17 21:13:54 Tags: research experiments hypothesis Folders: Description: exam 2 Show Answers:

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