research methods

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  1. 1. “Hypotheses must be…”
    • a. Testable-if a hypothesis does not generate any observational tests, there is nothing that a
    • scientist can do with it-you must be able to test it by conducting some sort of experiment.
    • b. Falsifiable- A hypothesis must be able to proven wrong, cannot be a definite yes/no or correct/false
    • c. Precise-Must be exact
    • d. Rational-It has to make sense and be logical.
    • e. Parsimonious-It must be simple and understandable
  2. What are the 3 sources of hypotheses?
    • -own observation
    • -theories
    • -models
  3. What are the 6 steps of hypothesis testing?
    • 1. Form hypothesis from theory, model, or observations
    • 2. Design study to test hypothesis
    • 3. Derive predictions
    • 4. Conduct study and test predictions
    • 5. Confirm or revise hypothesis depending on observations
    • 6. Modify theoretical concepts
  4. What is the Watson Selection test?
    • -Developed as a tst of logical reasoning
    • -Used by psychologists to study structure of human reasoning
    • -1966
    • -A logic puzzle formally equivalent to a question that ass about four cards with numbers/colors
    • -A response which identifies a card which need not be inverted, or a response which fails to identify a card which needs to be inverted are both wrong
    • -The original task dealt with numbers (even/odd) and letters (vowels,constants)
  5. What is conditional reasoning?
    • Based on and 'if A then B' construct that points B to be true if A is true
    • Conditional traps
    • Leaves open the question if A is false
    • Denying antecedent (making assumptions about what happens if A is false: If it is training, I will get wet, and it is not raining, but then something else could happen)
    • Denying consequent - if B is false, then A must also be false
    • Affirming consequent - A and B are both true.
  6. What are the 2 ways to properly test a conditioning statement?
  7. What are the order effects?
    • The order in which the subject is placed in an experiment affects the data
    • examples
    • Fatigue - subjects become upset, tired, and frustrated if kept for a long time
    • Practice -subjects become accustomed to conditions and perform well as a result, skewing results
  8. What pactorial design
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research methods
exam 2
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