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1. “Hypotheses must be…”
- a. Testable-if a hypothesis does not generate any observational tests, there is nothing that a
- scientist can do with it-you must be able to test it by conducting some sort of experiment.
- b. Falsifiable- A hypothesis must be able to proven wrong, cannot be a definite yes/no or correct/false
- c. Precise-Must be exact
- d. Rational-It has to make sense and be logical.
- e. Parsimonious-It must be simple and understandable
What are the 3 sources of hypotheses?
- -own observation
What are the 6 steps of hypothesis testing?
- 1. Form hypothesis from theory, model, or observations
- 2. Design study to test hypothesis
- 3. Derive predictions
- 4. Conduct study and test predictions
- 5. Confirm or revise hypothesis depending on observations
- 6. Modify theoretical concepts
What is the Watson Selection test?
- -Developed as a tst of logical reasoning
- -Used by psychologists to study structure of human reasoning
- -A logic puzzle formally equivalent to a question that ass about four cards with numbers/colors
- -A response which identifies a card which need not be inverted, or a response which fails to identify a card which needs to be inverted are both wrong
- -The original task dealt with numbers (even/odd) and letters (vowels,constants)
What is conditional reasoning?
- Based on and 'if A then B' construct that points B to be true if A is true
- Conditional traps
- Leaves open the question if A is false
- Denying antecedent (making assumptions about what happens if A is false: If it is training, I will get wet, and it is not raining, but then something else could happen)
- Denying consequent - if B is false, then A must also be false
- Affirming consequent - A and B are both true.
What are the 2 ways to properly test a conditioning statement?
What are the order effects?
- The order in which the subject is placed in an experiment affects the data
- Fatigue - subjects become upset, tired, and frustrated if kept for a long time
- Practice -subjects become accustomed to conditions and perform well as a result, skewing results
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