Cerebellum S2M1

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Cerebellum S2M1
2011-08-11 10:19:34
Ross S2M1

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  1. Akinesia
    Absence or poor movement
  2. Dyskinseia
    Fragmentary or incomplete movements
  3. Dystonia
    Disordered tonicity of muscles
  4. Dysmetria
    Inproper measuring of distance in muscular acts
  5. Dysdiadochokinesia
    Impairment of the ability to perform rapid altering movements
  6. What is the function of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum
    Adjusts ongoing movements and regulates muscle tone
  7. What is the main input of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum
    Spinocerebellar tracts
  8. What is the role of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum
    Coordinates planning of movements
  9. What is the main input into the Posterior lobe of the cerebellum
    Sensory and motor cortices
  10. What is the role of the Flocculo-nodular lobe of the cerebellum
    Controls balance and eye movements
  11. What is the primary input to the Flocculo-nodular lobe of the cerebellum
    Semicircular canals and the vestibular nuclei
  12. What are the four different nuclei in the cerebellum from external to internal
    • Dentate
    • Emboliform
    • Globose
    • Fastigial
    • "Don't Eat Greasy Food"
  13. What are the layers of the cerebellum
    • Molecular layer
    • Purkinje layer
    • Granule layer
  14. What are the 5 different Neuronal types on the cerebellum
    • Stellate cells
    • Basket cells
    • Purkinje cells
    • Golgi cells
    • Granule cells
  15. What is the only cell in the cerebellum that is an output cell
    Purkinje the rest are local circuit neurons
  16. What does the granule cell synapse on
    • Excitatory on Basket, Stellate, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer
    • They effect all
  17. What do the Basket cells synapse on
    • Inhibitory on Purkinje cell soma in the Purkinje layer
    • BP
  18. What do the Stellate cells synapse on
    • Inhibitory on the Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer
    • S&P 500 is in the (-)
  19. What do the Golgi cells synapse on
    • Inhibitory on the mossy fibers in the Granule layer
    • mGM Grand
  20. What do the Purkinje cells synapse on
    • Inhibitory on the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei (DCN) using GABA
    • They are the Major output Neuron of the cerebellar cortex
  21. What is the only excitatory cell in the cerebellum
    Granule cells
  22. What are the two different ways that the cerebellum receives termination of afferent signals
    • Mossy fibers - Terminate as excitatory synapses with dendrites of granule cells "mossy ground"
    • Climbing Fibers - Arising only from the inferior olive and "climb" dendrites of the Purkinje cells and terminate as excitatory synapses
  23. Mossy and climbing fibers have a common synapse where
    On the Deep Cerebellar Nuclei (DCN)
  24. What will never happen in a lesion from the cerebellum
    Produce paralysis, but it will cause disequilibrium, ataxia, dysmetria, and changes to muscle tone
  25. Anterior Spinocerebellar Tract pathway
    • Golgi tendon
    • DRG
    • Funiculus Gracilis
    • Spinal Border cells
    • Anterior White Commissure (cross)
    • Anterior Spinocerebellar Tract
    • Brainstem (cross)
    • Superior Cerebellar Peduncle
    • Cerebellum
  26. What tract uses the Superior Cerebellar Peduncle
    Anterior Spinocerebellar
  27. Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract
    • DRG
    • Fasiculus Gracilis
    • Clarkes Nucleus
    • Lateral Funiculus
    • Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract
    • Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
    • Cerebellum
  28. What is transmitted by the Anterior Spinocerebellar Tract
    Golgi tendon organs afferent information from the distal lower limbs to the cerebellum
  29. What information does the Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract transmit
    Golgi Tendon organ and muscle spindle afferent information from the trunk and proximal lower limb to the cerebellum
  30. Cuneocerebellar Tract pathway
    • Golgi Tendon
    • DRG
    • Fasciculus Cuneatus
    • Lateral Cuneate Nucleus
    • Cuneocerebellar Tract
    • Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
    • Cerebellum
  31. What is the general idea of the Cerebellar pathways
    • Cerebellum receives input from motor structures with their intended motion
    • Cerebellum receives extra input about the affect of the action
    • Cerebellum decides the appropriate action
  32. Truncal Ataxia
    • Lesions to Flocculonodular lobe
    • Patients have drunk like gait
    • Perform walk the line test (Tandem Gait test) they will deviate towards the side of the lesion
  33. Appendicular Ataxia
    • Lesion to the cerebellar hemispheres/ lateral zones
    • Affects movement of extremities
    • Dysdiadochokinesia
    • "Appendicular = appendages"
  34. What is a test that one can perform to test Appendicular Ataxia
    • Finger - Nose - Finger
    • Patient is asked to touch his nose and then quickly touch the examiners outstretched finger alternating back and forth
    • If not a straight line it is positive
  35. What is a simple action that patients with cerebellar dysfunction aren't able to perform
    Pronate and Supinate
  36. What tracts are affected in Friedrichs Ataxia
    • Spinocerebellar
    • Dorsal Columns
    • Corticospinal Tracts
  37. Classical conditioning (pavlovs dogs) is partially controlled by the
  38. What three cognitive functions can be affected by a damaged cerebellum
    • Motor learning
    • Classical conditioning
    • Higher cognitive functions (concentration ect.)