A&P Exm 4 Chpt 15

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Anonymous
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86416
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A&P Exm 4 Chpt 15
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2011-05-17 18:43:47
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Exm Chpt
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Nervous System
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  1. ´╗┐Define the term Neural Tracts.
    Myelinated axons running to and from same regions and carrie same type of info.
  2. What type of info do Ascending pathways carry and which direction do their messages travel?
    Ascending pathways carry sensory information up.
  3. What prefix begins the names of Ascending pathways?
    Spino-
  4. What type of info do Descending pathways carry and which direction do their messages travel?
    Somatic information and messages travel down.
  5. What suffix ends the names of the Descending pathways?
    -spinal
  6. What role do sensory receptors have?
    Allow us to sense change in our internal and external environments. They are stimuli specific and are critical to maintaining homeostasis.
  7. Define Sensation and Perception. Which requires that we be consciously aware of what is happening?
    Sensation is the arriving information and the conscious awareness of a sensation is called a perception. Perception requires conscious awareness.
  8. What percentage of incoming messages do we estimate we actually perceive?
    1% of all sensory info.
  9. Describe the type of info that nociceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors are specific for.
    • Nociceptors- Pain
    • Thermoreceptors- Temp
    • Mechanoreceptors- Physical/mechanical stimulation
    • Chemoreceptors- Changes in concentration of chemicals and compounds
  10. Define/describe phantom pain.
    Pain from missing structures. Cause could be at the site of amputation where nerves have been severed.
  11. Define/describe referred pain.
    Pain that feels like it comes from one area but actually is from another area. Ex Heart attach causes pain in left arm.
  12. Define/describe acute pain.
    Sudden onset, not gradual, go from 0 pain to extreme with no in btwn. Ex: slam finger in a door.
  13. Define/describe chronic pain.
    Longterm, comes and goes depending on conditions. Ex: arthritis
  14. In sensory/ascending pathways we typically have 1st, 2nd and 3rd order neurons. For each: Tell where it would start, Where it goes, & Where it would synapse w/the next neuron in the pathway.
    • 1st– starts in sensory receptor and goes to CNS. The axon enters the CNS where it synapses with the 2nd order neurons.
    • 2nd- starts in CNS and goes to the thalamus where it synapses with the 3rd order neurons. Before it synapses with the 3rd order neuron, the axon of the 2nd order neuron decussates.
    • 3rd– starts in the thalamus and goes to the proper sensory area of the cerebral cortex called the primary sensory cortex which sorts info based on where it is coming from
  15. Define Decussation.
    Crossing over from one side of the body to the other side of the brain.
  16. What is the somatosensory cortex?
    Areas of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum.
  17. How is space w/i the cortex assigned/divided?
    It is divided by the precise areas of the body that it receives messages from. The size of the area of somatosensory cortex devoted to an area corresponds in size to the number of sensory receptors NOT the size of the structure.
  18. List/describe the types of info carried by the Spinocerebellar pathway.
    Sub-conscious processing of proprioceptive information.
  19. Is proprioceptive info processed at a conscious level?
    No, it is processed in the Spinocerebellar pathway which is at a sub-concious level.
  20. Where do the 1st order neurons come from?
    Receptors.
  21. Where do the 1st and 2nd order neurons synapse?
    In dorsal gray matter.
  22. What tracts are formed by the 2nd order neurons?
    Posterior spinocerebellar tracts and Anterior spinocerebellar tracts.
  23. Where does the decussation take place for each tract?
    In the posterior gray horn prior to ascending.
  24. What type of info does the Posterior spinocerebellar tracts and Anterior spinocerebellar tracts carry?
    • Posterior spinocerebellar tracts carry somatic sensory
    • Anterior spinocerebellar tracts carry somatic sensory
  25. Where do the somatic motor pathways begin?
    Brain
  26. Where do most of the somatic motor pathways decussate?
    Medulla oblongata.
  27. For Upper Motor Neurons: Where are the somas, where do the axons go & do they leave the CNS?
    Somas and axons are in cerebral cortex or brain stem. Neurons do not leave CNS.
  28. For Lower Motor Neurons: Where are the somas, where do the axons go & do they leave the CNS?
    Somas are in CNS, axons project out into PNS.
  29. Upper motor neurons in the Corticobulbar tracts synapse with lower motor neurons going where?
    With lower motor neurons of motor nuclei of 8 cranial nerves going to the eyes, jaw, face and some neck and pharynx.
  30. Upper motor neurons of the Corticospinal tracts synapse with lower motor neurons going where?
    With lower motor neurons in anterior gray horns of spinal cord that control arms, legs and much of torso.
  31. Where do 85% of the motor neurons found in the Corticobulbar & Corticospinal tracts decussate?
    Medulla oblongata.
  32. What corticospinal tract do the motor neurons then continue on to after decussating?
    Lateral corticospinal tract.
  33. Where do the other 15% of the motor neurons decussate?
    In the anterior white commissure of the spinal cord.
  34. What corticospinal tract do they travel on until they decussate?
    Anterior corticospinal tracts.
  35. What is the motor cortex and how does it map out the motor areas of your cerebral cortex?
    It is the area of the cerebral cortex that controls motor fxn. The primary motor cortex corresponds point by point with specific regions of the body.
  36. What determines the amount of space a structure gets in the cerebral cortex?
    It is controlled & mapped out by the number of motor units and the complexity of an area not the size of the area. Ex: The face and hands area of the motor cortex is larger because there are lots of small motor units in these structures.
  37. Describe Cerebral palsy, which area(s) of the CNS are affected, what happens to someone with the condition, and the types of challenges they may encounter.
    Damage to motor cortex, loss of voluntary muscle control and coordination of muscle actions. May be accompanied by mental retardation but Cerebral palsy does not cause this and it is not a symptom of Cerebral palsy.
  38. Describe ALS (Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis), which area(s) of the CNS are affected, what happens to someone with the condition, and the types of challenges they may encounter.
    A progressive disorder involving upper and lower motor neurons which are located in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebrum. Disorder causes loss of skeletal muscle control which leads to muscle atrophy due to lack of use. Cognitive fxn is not affected.

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