A&P Exm 4 Chpt 16

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A&P Exm 4 Chpt 16
2011-05-17 21:51:03
Nervous System

Nervous System
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  1. What is the primary job of the ANS?
    Maintain homeostasis
  2. Does the ANS usually operate with or without conscious control?
    Without. It is Subconscious control.
  3. What types of tissues do the ANS motor neurons run to?
    Visceral- smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.
  4. What are some of the conditions monitored by the ANS?
    Concentration of body fluids, blood pressure, heart rate, digestion progress.
  5. What are some of the responses that are mediated by the ANS?
    Sweating, salivation, heart rate increase.
  6. Where does the ANS get its afferent (sensory) info from?
    Exteroceptors, interoceptors, visceral afferents, and somatic afferents.
  7. Autonomic motor pathways: There are 2 neurons in a motor sequence in the efferent pathways of the ANS. They are the _____________ neuron and the ___________ neuron.
    Preganglionic and the ganglionic.
  8. Describe a Preganglionic neuron including where its soma is located.
    Preganglionic the cell body is inside the CNS and the axon is myelinated and exits CNS via cranial nerve. It synapses w/ganglionic neurons in the PNS.
  9. Describe a Ganglionic neuron including where its soma is located.
    The cell body is outside CNS in the autonomic ganglion. The axon is non-myelinated which makes it slower but that is ok b/c it goes to the visceral effector.
  10. Define Autonomic Ganglia.
    A collection of visceral motor neurons outside the central nervous system.
  11. When does Sympathetic division occur?
    Fight/flight and or stress situations.
  12. Where do sympathetic neurons come off the CNS?
    The thoracic and superior lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
  13. Describe the structure and locations of the pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons in the Sympathetic division.
    Pre-ganglionic neurons are short because the ganglion is close to the CNS thus the post-ganglionic neurons are long because the visceral effectors are far from the ganglion.
  14. What does the term divergence mean and how does this influence sympathetic nerve effects?
    To have divergence means to have wide spreading effects. This influences sympathetic nerve effects by impacting many areas at one time rather than one at a time.
  15. What type of situations does the sympathetic division handle?
  16. What are some of the general effects of sympathetic activity?
    Increased heart rate, muscle tone, metabolic rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, pupil size.
  17. What type of metabolism (anabolic or catabolic) does Sympathetic activity promote?
  18. Describe the paravertebral ganglia.
    • Paravertebral ganglia is sometimes called chain ganglia. It runs lateral and parallel to the spinal cord and controls effectors in the body wall and thoracic cavity. It increases circulation to skeletal muscle, heat and brain. It releases lipids from subcutaneous fat, stimulates sweat glands and energy production and use in muscle.
  19. Describe the prevertebral ganglia.
  20. Describe the adrenal medulla.
  21. What are some structures that receive only sympathetic fibers?
    Sweat glands, arrector pilli, adiposcytes, blood vessels, adrenal glands.
  22. When does Parasympathetic division occur?
    Rest/repose and normal situations.
  23. Where do parasympathetic neurons come off the CNS?
    4 cranial nerves on the brain stem and spinal nerves S2-S4
  24. Describe the structure and locations of the pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic neurons in the Parasympathetic division.
    Ganglia are far from CNS to be closer to visceral effectors and it is because of this arrangement that the pre-ganglionic neurons are long while the post-ganglionic neurons are short.
  25. What kind of divergence is seen in the parasympathetic division and how does this influence parasympathetic nerve effects?
    There is little to no divergence in the parasympathetic division due to the need for more specific and greater control, meaning each area is activated only as needed.
  26. What type of metabolism (anabolic or catabolic) does Parasympathetic activity promote?
    This activity promotes anabolic metabolism and burns little energy allowing the body to restock.
  27. Why do we say the parasympathetic division is an energy conserving/restoring system?
  28. What structures receive only parasympathetic fibers?
  29. Define Dual Innervation.
    Organs that receive signals from both sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  30. Name the 5 parts of a visceral autonomic reflex.
    • Receptor
    • Sensory Neuron
    • Association Neurons
    • Autonomic motor neurons
    • Effector
  31. Which parts of a visceral autonomic reflex are similar/identical to somatic reflexes like the knee jerk reflex?
    Receptor, Sensory Neuron, & Effector
  32. Which parts of a visceral autonomic reflex are different from the somatic reflexes?
    Association neurons & Autonomic motor neurons.
  33. Name 2 major differences between somatic and autonomic reflexes.
    • Somatic reflex effectors are skeletal muscles which mean they are not precise.
    • Autonomic reflex are smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, glands or adipocytes. These reflexes help maintain homeostasis.
  34. What type of neurotransmitter do Cholinergic neurons release?
  35. Describe Nicotinic ACh receptors and give location.
    They are always excitatory and are at all synapses between preganglionic and ganglionic cells in ANS.
  36. What are some of the results of stimulating nicotinic receptors?
    Opens chemically gated Na+ channels.
  37. What is nicotine poisoning and what are some of the symptoms?
    Increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, BP & heart rate, as well as convulsions.
  38. Describe Muscarinic ACh receptors & give location.
    Some are inhibited and other receptors are stimulated. They are found at neuromuscular and neuroglandular parasympathetic junctions as well as cholinergic sympathetic junctions.
  39. What are some of the results of stimulating muscarinic receptors?
    See above SEE NOTES
  40. What is muscarine poisoning and what are some of the symptoms?
    Increased salivation, vomiting, diarrhea and decreased blood pressure and heart rate. The airways narrow, too.
  41. What types of neurotransmitters do adrenergic neurons release?
    Norephinephrine and epinephrine.
  42. What are some of the effects of adrenergic stimulation?
    Enhanced effects of sympathetic stimulation, may activate enzymes or may stimulate metabolism.